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Developmental Psych

Chapter 2 - Biological and Environmental Foundations

Phenotypes Directly observable characteristics. Determined by relationship between ALLELES.
Genotype Genetic information that determines our species and influences all our unique characteristics
Nature vs Nurture Both nature and nurture affect all aspects of development
Chromosomes Rodlike structures which store and transmit genetic information. Human chromosomes comes in 23 matching pairs (22 of which are called AUTOSOMES. 23rd is the SEX CHROMOSOMES). Comprised of DNA
DNA Body cells which reproduce by mitosis (duplicate). Consists of pairs of matching chemicals called bases. 98.99% of chimpanzee & human DNA is identical
Gene Segment of DNA along the length of the chromosome
Mitosis Duplication of DNA
Gametes Sex cells – sperm and ovum
Meiosis Process of cell division where gametes are formed. Halves the number of chromosomes normally present. MEN – 4 sperm produced; can produce for life. WOMEN – 1 ovum produced; material to produce degenerates; born with all ova
Cytoplasm Area surrounding the cell nucleus
Zygote Fertilized ovum with 46 chromosomes (23 from sperm, 23 from ovum)
Crossing over Exchange of genes of chromosomes next to each other.
Allele Each of 2 forms of a gene located at the same place on the autosomes. 2 same = homozygous; 2 different = heterozygous
Dominant-Recessive Inheritance 1 dominant, 1 recessive allele. Trait of dominant allele is visible and becomes carrier for recessive allele
Modifier Genes Enhance or dilute the effects of other genes.
Incomplete Dominance Both alleles are expressed; either intermediate between 2 or both combined
X-Linked Inheritance Males more likely because of unmatched chromosomes. On females, any recessive allele on one X has a good chance of being suppressed by dominant allele on other X. EG hemophilia
Genetic Imprinting Allele are marked in such a way that it is activated regardless of makeup
Mutation Sudden, permanent change in DNA. GERMLINE MUTATION – occurs in cells that develop in to gametes; passes to next generation. SOMATIC MUTATION – occurs at any time to normal body cells
Polygenetic Inheritance Many genes affect a characteristic
Chromosomal Abnormalities or Defects Most occur during meiosis (sperm & ovum formed) +/- X chromosomes = mental defects 0EG Down Syndrome most common; Klinefelter’s Syndrome (XXY; XYY Syndrome; Turner’s Syndrome (XO); Fragile X Syndrome;
Dominant Recessive Diseases People with serious diseases due to dominant alleles rarely live long enough to reproduce, eliminating allele from family heredity (Hungtington’s is an exception) EG Sickle cell anemia, PKU
Down Syndrome Most common chromosomal defect. 21st pair fails to separate during meiosis or extra on 21 (Trisomy 21). SYMP gap between 1st & 2nd toes, mental retardation, speech, stocky, short build, flattened face, almond-shaped eyes. Risk rises with maternal age
Genetic Counseling Process designed to help couples asses chances of giving birth to a baby with a disorder and choose best course of action EG women past 35, repeated miscarriages, known genetic problems
Prenatal Diagnostic Methods Medical procedures that permit detection of developmental problems before birth. EG ultrasound, amniocentesis, fetoscopy
Socio-Economic Status (SES) Measure of family’s social position and economic well-being that combines 3 related variables: years of education, prestige of skill required by job, income. Higher SES = enhanced cognitive and language dev. w
Extended Family Households Parent and child live with one or more adult relatives
Collectivist Societies Societies in which people define themselves as part of a group and stress group over individual goals. Value interdependent self – stresses social harmony, obligations & responsibility to others and collaborative endeavors
Individualistic Societies Societies in which people think of themselves as separate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs. Value independent self – emphasizes personal exploration, discovery and achievement and individual choice in relationships
Public Policies Laws and government programs designed to improve current conditions
Convention on the Rights of the Child Legal agreement among nations that commits them to work toward guaranteeing environments that foster child’s development, protection and enhancement of community participation and self-determination
Behaviorual Genetics Field devoted to uncovering contributions of nature and nuture
Heritability Estimates Measures the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetics. Obtained from KINSHIP STUDIES – comparing characteristics of family member
Concordance Rate Percentage of instances in which both twins show a trait when it is present in one twin
Range of Reaction or Reaction Range Genetically determined response to a range of environmental conditions
Canalization Genetically determined restriction of development to 1 or a few possible outcomes. EG language development
Genetic-Environmental Correlation Idea that heredity influences the environments to which we are exposed. PASSIVE –child has no control over it. EVOCATIVE – responses children evoke from others influenced by child’s heredity, and these responses strengthen the child’s original style
Niche-Picking Tendency to actively choose environments that complement our heredity. EG Child choosing to spend time practicing piano
Epigenesis Development resulting from ongoing, bi-direction exchanges between heredity and all levels of environment
Created by: cintran
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