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Chapter 11

Urinary System

TermDefinition
electrolyte mineral salt (sodium, potassium, or calcium) that carries an electrical charge
filtrate fluid that passes from the blood through the capillary walls of the glomeruli into Bowman capsule
nitrogeneous waste product of protein metabolism that include urea, uric acid, creatine, creatinine, an ammonia
peristaltic wave sequence of rhythmic contraction of smooth muscles of a hollow organ to force material forward and prevent backflow
peritoneum serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and covers most of the organs within the cavity
pH symbol that expresses the alkalinity of acidity of a solution
albumin/o albumin, protein
azot/o nitrogeneous compounds in the blood
bacteri/o bacteria
cyst/o bladder
vesic/o bladder
glomerul/o glomerulus
kal/i potassium
keton/o ketone bodies (acids and acetones)
lith/o stone, calculus
meat/o opening, meatus
nephr/o kidney
ren/o kidney
noct/o night
olig/o scanty
py/o pus
pyel/o renal pelvis
ur/o urine, urinary tract
ureter/o ureter
urethr/o urethra
genesis forming, producing, origin
iasis abnnormal condition (produced by something specified)
uria urine
dia through, across
retro backward, behind
anuria absence of production or output
BNO (bladder neck obstruction) blockage at the base of the bladder that reduces or prevents urine from passing into the urethra
cystocele prolapsing or downward displacement of the bladder due to weakening of the supporting tissues between a woman's bladder and vagina
dysuria painful or difficult urination, commonly described as a burning sensation while urinating
(ESRD) end-stage renal disease any type of kidney disease in which there is little or no remaining kidney function, requiring the patient to undergo dialysis or kidney transplant for survival
enuresis involuntary discharge of urine; also called incontinence
fistula abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another
hydronephoresis abnormal dilation of the renal pelvis and the calyces of one or both kidneys due to pressure from accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract
IC (interstitial cystitis) chronic inflammation of the bladder wall that is not caused by bacterial infection and is not responsive to conventional antibiotic therapy; aka painful bladder syndrome
nephrotic syndrome loss of large amounts of plasma protein, usually albumin, through urine due to an increased permeability of the glomerular membrane
neurogenic bladder impairment of bladder control due to brain or nerve conduction
PKD (polycystic kidney disease) inherited disease in which sacs of fluid called cysts develop in the kidneys
urgency sensation of the need to void immediately
(VUR) vesicoureteral reflux disorder caused by the failure of urine to pass through the ureters to the bladder, usually due to impairment of valve between the ureter and bladder or obstruction of the ureter
wilms tumor rapidly developing malignant neoplasm of the kidney that usually occurs in children
dialysis mechanical filtering of process used to clease the blood of toxic substances, such as nitrogenous wastes, when kidneys fail to function properly
hemodialysis type of dialysis where artificial kidney machine removes waste-filled blood, filters, and returns the clean blood to the bloodtream
peritoneal type of dialysis in which toxic substances are removed from the body by using the peritoneal membrane as the filter by perfussing (flushing) the peritoneal cavity with a warm, sterile chemical solution
kidney transplant replacement of a diseased kidney with one from a compatible donor
nephropexy fixation of a floating or mobile kidney
nephrostomy passage of a tube through the skin and into the renal pelvis to drain urine to a collecting receptacle outside the body when th ureters are unable to do so
stent placement insertion of a mesh tube into a natural passage conduit in the body to prevent, or counteract a disease-induced, localized flow constriction
urethrotomy incision of a urethral stricture
EMG (electromyography) measures the contraction of muscles that control urination using electrodes placed in the rectum and urethra
cystoscopy examination of the urinary bladder for evidence of pathology, obtaining biopsies of tumors or other growths , and removal of polyps using a specialized endoscope
(BUN) blood urea nitrogen determines the amount of nitrogen in the blood that comes from urea, a waste product of protein metabolism
culture and sensitivity (C&S) determines the causative organism of an infection and identifies how the organism responds to various antibiotics
urinalysis (UA) urine screening test that includes physical observation, chemical tests, and misroscopic evaluation
ultrasonography (US) high frequency ultrasound waves are directed at soft tissue and reflected as echos to produce an image on the monitor
IVP (intravenous pyelography) imaging of the urinary tract after IV injection of a contrast medium; also called excretory urography (EU)
nuclear scan technique in which a radiopharmaceutical called a tracer is introduced into the body, and a specialized gamma camera is used to produce images of organs and structures
renal nuclear scan of the kidneys used to determine their size, shape, and position
VCUG (voiding cystourethrography) xray of the bladder and urethra performed before, during, and after voiding using a contrast medium to enhance imaging
Created by: sydneyespy