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Developmental Pysch

Chapter 1 - Theory & Research in Child Development

Child Development Area of study devoted to understanding constancy and change from conception through adolescence
Developmental Science Interdisiplinary field devoted to the study of all changes we experience throughout the lifespan
Prenatal Period Conception to birth (9 months)
Infancy & Toddlerhood Birth - 2 years. Emergence of motor, perceptual, and intellectual capacities/Beginnings of language. First intimate ties to other.
Early Childhood 2-6 years. Body lengthens, motor skills refined. Child more self-sufficient.Make-believe play.
Middle Childhood 6-11 years. Improved athletic abilities. More logical though processes. Mastery of basic literacy skills. Advance in understanding of self, morality and friendship.
Adolescence 11-18 years. Puberty. Abstract and idealistic thoughts. Autonomy.
Basic Issues of Developmental Psychology (1) Continuous or discontinuous (2) One or many possible courses of development? (3) Nature vs. nurture (4) ree will vs determinism
Theory Orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior
Continuous Development View that regards development as a cumulative process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with.
Discontinuous Development Development process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times. Like steps.
Tabula Rasa Blank slate. John Locke’s belief that a child’s character is shaped entirely by experience. Believed praise & approval better than rewards of money or sweets. Opposed physical punishment. Many courses
Resilience Ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development.
Noble Savages Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s view that children are born with a sense of right and wrong and a plan for orderly, healthy growth.
Maturation Genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth.
Normatative Approach Age-related averages computed to represent typical development. Launched by Hall & Gesell. Used questionnaires, observations, interviews.
Stanley Hall Founder of child-study movement. Launched normatative approach.
Binet & Simon Constructed the first intelligence test. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
Psychoanalytic Perspective Fred’s view of personality development. Children move through stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations. Resolution of conflicts determines psychological adjustment. Discontinuous.
Psychosexual Theory Freud’s theory emphasizes parent’s management of children’s sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years of life are crucial for personality development.
Psychosocial Theory Erikson’s theory which emphasizes that at each Freudian stage, individuals also acquire attitudes and skills that help them become active, contributing members of society.
Erickson’s Psychosocial Stages (1) Basic trust vs mistrust; Oral – Birth-1 yr (2) Autonomy vs shame and doubt; Anal – 1-3 yrs (3) Initiative vs guilt; Phallic – 3- 6 yrs (4) Industry vs Inferiority; Latency – 6-11 yrs (5) Identity vs role confusion; Genital – Adolescence
Behaviourism Watson & Skinner Directly observable events such as stimuli and response are the appropriate focus of study. Classic and operant condition. John Watson. Continuous Emphasis on nurture.
Social Learning Theory Alberta Bandura Emphasizes the role of modeling or observational learning in development of behavior.
Jean Piaget Cognitive-Development Theory Learning doesn't depend on reinforcers. Construct knowledge as explore their world. Biological adaptation to fit the external world. Stages: Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational stage. Discontinuous.
Information Processing Theory Continuous development. Acquires information through processing (problem solving). Computer like.
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Researchers from psychology, biology, neuroscience, medicine study relationship between changes in the brain and developing child’s cognitive processing and behavior patterns.
Ethology Focuses on adaptive or survival value of behavior and on similarities between human behavior and other species. Both continuous and discontinuous.
Evolutionary Developmental Psychology Understanding the adaptive value of species-wide cognitive, emotional and social competencies and their change with age.
Vygotsky Sociocultural Theory Cognitive development a socially mediated process; children depend on assistance from adults and peers to take on new challenges. Stagewise changes. Both continuous and discontinuous. How culture is transmitted to the next generation.
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory Microsystem. Mesosystem. Exosystem. Macrosystem. Chronosystem is the temporal changes and effects of the system.
Dynamic Systems Perspective Always changing, any changes disrupts the system and child actively reorganize his or her behavior to adapt. Continuous and discontinuous.
Hypothesis Prediction, drawn directly from a theory.
Structured Observations Laboratory situation is set up that evokes a behavior of interest so that every participant has an opportunity to display the response.
Ethnography Observation of a culture or social group. Typically spends months or years in cultural community to observe.
Structured Interviews Each participant is asked the same questions in the same way.
Correlational Design Researcher fathers information on individuals without altering participants’ experience s and examines relationships between variables. CON: No inferences about CAUSE and EFFECT. Quasi-experiemental.
Experimental Design Has independent variable and dependent variable.
Longitudinal Design Participants studied repeatedly at different ages and changes noted as they age. PROS: Able to identify patterns & examine relationships of early and later behaviours. CONS: Participants move. Test-wiseness. cohort effects
Cross-Sectional Design People in different age groups are studied at the same point in time. PROS: No dropout rates. CONS: Cohort effects – effects of cultural-historical change in accuracy of findings; cannot tell if individual differences exist.
Sequential Design Combination of LONGITUDINAL & CROSS SECTIONAL. Several similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies at varying times.
Microgenetic Design Presents children with a task and follows their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions. Adaption of longitudinal. Useful for studying of cognitive development.
Determinism All behavior is determined by preceding events. OPPOSITION – free will
Resilience Depends on protective factors (Sonja Luther); goodness of fit (Lerner & Lerner);
Nature Inborn biological hereditary information received from our parents
Nurture Forces of physical and social world that influence our biological makeup and psychological experiences before and after birth
Protective Factors (Resilience) Personal Characteristics. Warm Parental Relationship. Social Support Outside of Immediate Family. Community Resources & Opportunities.
Medievil Times Mixed ideas about children: Children regarded as born evil and stubborn and had to be civilized; children portrayed as innocents
Sensorimotor Stages Birth - 2 yrs. Piaget's first stage. Senses and movements. Think with eyes, ears, hands & mouth
Preoperational Stage 2 - 7 yrs. Piaget's 2nd stage. Symbolic but illogical thinking. Language and make-believe begin
Concrete Operational Stage 7 - 11 yrs. Piaget's 3rd stage. - Organized reasoning, logical.
Formal Operational Stage 11+ yrs. Piaget's 4th stage. Abstract, systematic reasoning.
Jean Jacques Rousseau Noble savages. Child centered philosophy - adults should be receptive to child's needs at all 4 stages of development. Includes 2 steps: stages and maturation. Discontinuous; one course.
Stages Qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specific periods of development. Periods of rapid transformation from stage to stage, plateaus in between. Discontinuous theories view development as stages.
Created by: cintran
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