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Weather Ch. 5 & 16

Long-term cycle: Eccentricity (E) 100,000 year cycle; change in earths elliptical orbit
E=0, E=.017, E=.058 Circular orbit, current (7% difference in solar energy), max (23% difference between aphelion and perihelion)
E will remain ( ) for the next 50,000 years Low
More elliptical= ( ), less elliptical= ( ) Ice age, interglacial
Long-term cycle: Obliquity 41,000 year cycle; change in earths tilt
Tilt=23.45˚, tilt=24.5˚, tilt=22˚ Current, max, min
( ) tilt will occur in under 15,000 years Minimum
Long-term cycle: Precession 23,000 year cycle; change in time of year perihelion and aphelion occur.
Aphelion=July, Perihelion=Jan; Aphelion=Jan, Perihelion=July Current (warmer); in 11,000 years (cooler)
Earth will be ( ) 10k-15k years from now due to the changes in these long-term cycles Cooler
These cycles only change earths temperature .1˚F to .2˚F every ( ) years 100
In the last 100 years earth has warmed nearly ( )˚F 2
Can long-term or short-term natural cycles explain this warming trend? No
Short-term cycle: Sunspots 11 year cycle; # of sunspots changes with each cycle
More sunspots= ( ), less sunspots= ( ) Warmer; cooler
Short-term cycle: Ocean currents 1) Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)- 40-80 years; cool phase=cooler temps; warm phase=warmer temps 2) El Nino/La Nina-1-2 year phase; Nino=warmer temps; Nina=cooler temps
Short-term cycle: Weather Patterns More clouds=cooler, less clouds=warmer
Short-term cycles include: Sunspots, ocean currents, weather patterns and volcanic eruptions
Long-term cycles include: Eccentricity, obliquity, and precession
Since 2000 short-term cycles suggest earth should be ( ) yet temps continue to ( ) Cooler; rise
Water molecule (H2O) Can exist in solid, liquid and vapor form on earth
10% of earth is covered by ( ) Ice
Over 70% of earth is covered by ( ) Liquid water
Water vapor ranges from ( )% in the ATM 0-4
Hydrological cycle Water that evaporates off the ocean eventually returns
( )% of H2Ov in the ATM is from the ocean 85
( )% of H2Ov in the ATM is from land 15
Transpiration Evaporation from plants and trees
Over ( )% of all precipitation falls back into the ocean 50
H2Ov remains in the ATM an average of ( ) days 7-10
CO2 remains in the ATM an average of ( ) days 100
The ATM has a limit for ( ) in the ATM H2Ov
( ) air can hold more H2Ov, while ( ) air holds less H2Ov before its saturated Warmer; cold
Saturation The max amount of H2Ov the air can hold at a given temp
When the air is saturated Evaporation rates=condensation rates, no net evaporation, clouds form
2 things to measure regarding H2Ov H2Ov content and saturation point
Moisture variables: Humidity, absolute humidity, specific humidity, mixing ratio, relative humidity, vapor pressure, saturated vapor pressure, dew point temp, wet bulb temp, heat index temp
Humidity A general way to specify about H2Ov in the ATM
Absolute humidity =mass of H2Ov/volume of air; depends on volume; not used in weather
Specific humidity =mass of H2Ov/total mass of air; measures H2Ov content; units g/kg; difficult to measure
Mixing ratio (MR) =mass of H2Ov/mass of dry air; measures H2Ov content; units g/kg; difficult to measure
Relative humidity (RH) A ratio that compares the amount of H2Ov in the air to the amount of H2Ov the air can hold. RH=(H2Ov content/H2Ov capacity)•100%; ranges from 0-100%; units in %
RH measures How close the air is to the saturation point
RH=100% Air is saturated, no net evaporation, evaporation rates=condensation rates, difficult to measure
Low RH=
Vapor pressure (VP) The force exerted by H2Ov in the air; measures H2Ov content; units in millibars (mb)
N2 78%=>780mb so H2Ov 1%=> 10mb VP
H2Ov ranges from 0-4% so VP ranges from ( )mb 0-40
Saturated vapor pressure (SVP) The amount of force the H2Ov would exert if the air was saturated; measures H2Ov capacity; units in mb; based on temp
RH=VP/( )•100% SVP
2 things to measure regarding moisture H2Ov content (DP) and saturation point (RH)
Dew Point Temperature The temp the air would need to be for saturation to occur; units in temp; measures H2Ov content
When the air temperature=DP the RH=?% 100
When the air temp and DP are far apart in value, the RH is ( ) Low
Increase in DP = ( ) in H2Ov content; decrease in DP = ( ) in H2Ov content Increase; decrease
The temperature can't drop below ( ) so ( ) can't rise above temperature DP
Wet bulb temperature The coldest you can get the air by evaporation; use to find DP and RH
Wet bulb depression= Dry bulb (air temp) - wet bulb
Heat index temperature How hot the air feels due to high temp and RH
Ground saturation Occurs on long and clear nights with light wind and a temp inversion; the ground temp has to cool to the DP temp of the air
3 types of ground saturation Dew, frost, frozen dew
Ground saturation: Dew When liquid drops from on a surface where the temp=DP and is >32˚F
Ground saturation: Frost When ice crystals form on a surface where the temp= DP and is ≤ 32˚F
Ground saturation: Frozen dew When liquid drops freeze on a surface 1st temp=DP>32˚F (condensation) and 2nd temp=DP ≤ 32˚F (freezing)
For clouds to form you need 2 factors: RH=100%; condensation nuclei (CN)
Condensation nuclei Particles that serve as a place for H2Ov to condense
Types of CN Dust, smoke, soot, salt, pollution, bacteria, ash, pollen
Categories of CN Hygroscopic, hydrophobic, neutral
CN: Hygroscopic Water attracting; condensation begins at RH≥75% (i.e. salt)
CN: Hydrophobic Water repelling; no condensation even at RH=100% (i.e. oil based CN)
CN: Neutral Condensation begins at RH=100%; most CN are neutral (i.e. dust, smoke, soot, ash)
Typical air contains ( ) CN/cm³ 10,000 to 100,000
City air contains ( ) CN/cm³ 100,000 to over 1 mil
Desert air contains ( ) CN/cm³ 100 to 10,000
CN reduce your visibility by producing ( ) Haze
Haze A reduction to your visibility due to CN
Dry Haze Reduction to visibility due to high amounts of CN
Wet Haze Reduction to visibility due to growing hygroscopic CN
Clean air has visibility over ( ) miles 50
Typical air has visibility over ( ) miles 20-40
City air has visibility under ( ) miles 10
Fog A cloud that forms at or near ground level
Thick vs. thin fog (factors): Amount of CN; amount of H2Ov
4 ways fog forms (types of fog) Advection fog; radiation (valley) fog; upslope fog; evaporation (steam) fog
Advection fog When warmer air moves over a colder surface and cools to the DP (i.e. CA coast in summer)
Radiation (valley) fog When a cool and saturated layer of air forms under a warmer/dry layer (persistent); great valley of CA in winter
Upslope fog When the wind pushes air up a slope and the temp cools to the DP
Evaporation (steam) fog When cold air blows over a warmer water surface and the DP rises up to the temp
Cirro- High/wispy/curl
Alto- Middle cloud
Cumulus- Cellular/non-uniform
Stratus- Layered cloud/uniform (blanket-like)
Nimbus- Precipitation (rain cloud)
5 Cloud families: High clouds; middle clouds; low stable clouds; low vertical clouds; unusual clouds
High clouds Temps<-40˚C; all ice; mainly thin and white: cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus
Cirrus Thin and scattered, wispy and fibers, Mares' tails
Cirrostratus Thin sheet of clouds, can be transparent, halo effect around sun/moon
Cirrocumulus Small and thin cloud cells, can be lined up in rows or bands, Mackrell sky effect, smaller than thumb nail
Middle clouds Temps 0˚C to -40˚C; mixture of ice and water drops; light grey base: altostratus, altocumulus
Altostratus Thin blanket of light grey clouds, watery sky effect
Altocumulus Medium sized cloud cells, light grey base, can be lined up or in rows or bands, ≥thumb nail and <fist (larger than cirrocumulus, more grey)
Low stable clouds Temps of base above 0˚C; all water base; medium to dark grey base: stratus, nimbostratus, stratocumulus
Stratus Low blanket of grey clouds, for sometimes can produce "drizzle"
Nimbostratus Thicker stratus, produces a light and steady precipitation
Stratocumulus Larger cloud cells, rounded or pancake shaped, can be interconnected in rows, mainly flat and grey (started as stratus, broke up into cumulus), larger than fist
Low vertical clouds Cumulus, cumulus congestus, cumulonimbus
Cumulus Flat grey base, white cotton-like side and top, little vertical growth, "fair weather clouds"
Cumulus congestus Thicker cumulus, congestus- "to tower" in the sky, can have heavy but brief shower
Cumulonimbus Thunderstorms, thickets cloud, anvil top, can have lightning, thunder, hail, tornados
Unusual clouds Contrail, lenticular, mammatus
Contrail Human produced, "chemtrails", icy, tracks from jets
Lenticular Lens shape cloud, over and downwind of mountains, layers, concave
Mammatus Under thunderstorms, tornado
Created by: Matti