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Pharmacology Exam 2

QuestionAnswer
What is the correct breathing pattern for the best deposition of aerosolized medications? Inhale full and hold breath for 3-5 seconds
What are the advantages of aerosolized administration of medications? Immediate/ rapid onset of drug action, reduced systemic side effects, drug delivery is targeted for local pulmonary effect, smaller doses than systemic, patients can be taught to self administer, and painless and convenient
What is the device that is used to proved a reservoir and improve drug delivery when giving an MDI? Spacer
How can you tell if an MDI canister is empty? Place canister in water, if empty, it will float on its side
What is the purpose of the breath hold during an aerosol treatment? Improves deposition of the drug
Ultra-Short Acting, SABA's, and LABA's are considered _________ door drugs. Front
Anti-cholinergic are considered _________ door drugs. Back
Xanthines are considered ___________ door drugs. Side
What is the mechanism of action for Sympathomimetics? Bronchodilation by breaking down ATP to cAMP
What is the mechanism of action for anti-cholinergics? Bronchodilation of the large airways by decreasing cGMP
What is the mechanism of action for xanthines? Inhibits phosphodiesterase to prevent breakdown of cAMP
What is the indication for the use of bronchodilators? Presence of reversible airway obstruction
Is Albuterol a rescue or a maintenance drug? Rescue
Is Salmeterol a rescue or a maintenance drug? Maintenance
Is Levalbuterol a rescue or a maintenance drug? Rescue
Are aerosolized corticosteroids considered maintenance or rescue drugs? Maintenance
Are systemic corticosteroids considered maintenance or rescue drugs? Maintenance
Are leukotrienes considered rescue or maintenance drugs? Maintenance
Is cromolyn sodium considered a rescue or a maintenance drug? Maintenance
Is metproterenol a rescue or a maintenance drug? Rescue
What is the Ultra-Short acting bronchodilator? Racemic epinephrine
What are the brand names for racemic epinephrine? Nephron, micronefrin, vaponefrin, S2
What is the duration time for racemic epinephrine? 0.5-2 hours
What are the short acting beta adrenergics? Levalbuterol, albuterol, and metaproterenol
What is the brand name for Levalbuterol? Xopenex
What is the duration time for Levalbuterol? 5-8 hours
What are the brand names for Albuterol? Ventolin and proventil
What is the duration time for albuterol? 5-8 hours
What is the brand name for metaproterenol? None
What is the duration time for metaproterenol? 2-6 hours
What are the five LABAs? Salmeterol, arformoterol, formoterol, indacaterol, and olodaterol
What is the brand name for salmeterol? Serevent diskus
What is the duration time for salmeterol? 12 hours
What is the brand name for arformoterol? Brovana
What is the duration time for arformoterol? 12 hours
What is the brand name for formoterol? Foradil
What is the duration time for formoterol? 12 hours
What is the brand name for indacaterol? Arcapta neohaler
What is the duration time for indacaterol? 24 hours
What is the brand name for olodaterol? Striverdi Respimat
What is the duration time for olodaterol? 12 hours
Which drug is the R-isomer of albuterol? Levalbuterol
What is the dosage for albuterol? 0.5 mL of a 0.5% solution (2.5 mg) Q4-Q6
What is the dosage of ipratropium bromide? SVN: 500 mcg TID/ QID or MDI: 17 mcg/ puff, 2 puffs QID
What is the dosage for levalbuterol? 0.63mg/ 3mL TID or 1.25mg/ 3mL TID
What is the dosage for racemic epinephrine? SVN: 0.25-0.5 mL of a 2.25% solution QID
What are the five anti cholinergic drugs? Ipratropium bromide, tiotropium bromide, oxitropium bromide, aclidinium bromide, and umecidium bromide
What is the brand name for ipratropium bromide? Atrovent
What is the brand name for tiotropium bromide? Spiriva
What is the brand name for oxitropium bromide? Oxivent
What is the brand name for aclidinium bromide? Tudorza Pressair
What is the brand name for umecidium bromide? Incruse Ellipta
What are the recommended flow rates for SVN treatments? 6-10L/ min, 3mL-6L/min, or 5mL-10L/min
What are the routes of administration for xanthines? IV, injection, or tablet
List the examples of bland aerosols. Normal (isotonic) saline, hypotonic saline, hypertonic saline, sterile water
What is the brand name for N-Acetylcysteine? Mucomyst (10% or 20%)
What are the indications for N-Acetylcysteine? Patients with thick, viscous, or inspissated secretions OR acetaminophen OD
What is the mode of action for N-Acetylcysteine? Reduces viscosity of mucus by breaking down disulfide bonds
What are the indications for Cromolyn Sodium? Prophylactic drug for asthma
What is the mode of action for Cromolyn Sodium? Prevents degranulation or breakdown by thickening of mast cells to prevent the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators
What is the brand name for Dornase alfa? Pulmozyme
What are the indications for Dornase alfa? Management of cystic fibrosis
What is the mode of action for Dornase alfa? Hydrolyzes the DNA in sputum and reduces viscosity
What is the brand name for Budesonide? Pulmicort
What are the adverse effects of inhaled corticosteroids? Cushingoid appearance, candida albicans (thrush), adrenal suppression, obsesity, and hypertension
What can be done to prevent oral fungal infections caused by inhaled corticosteroids? Rinse mouth with water after treatment
What is the neurotransmitter at the sympathetic receptor site? Norepinephrine
What is the neurotransmitter at the parasympathetic receptor site? Acetylcholine
Adrenergic receptors respond to what neurotransmitter? Norepinephrine
Choinergic receptors respond to what neurotransmitter? Acetylcholine
What are the adrenergic receptors? Alpha, Beta 1, and Beta 2
What are the cholinergic receptors at the effector site? Muscarinic 1, 2, and 3
At what point during the breath, should you instruct a patient to activate the MDI canister? At the start of inhalation
Name the alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic? Racemic Epinephrine
What is the main indication for alpha adrenergic drugs? Upper airway edema
What are the three causes of bronchoconstriction? Bronchospasm, muscosal edema (inflammation) and retained secretions
What type of drug is used to treat bronchospasm? Bronchodilators - sympathomimetics, anti-cholinergics, and xanthines
What type of drug is used to treat mucosal edema? Corticosteroids and alpha adrenergics
What type of drug is used to treat retained secretions? Mucolytics
What are the pulmonary surfactant drugs? Beractant, calfactant, and poractant alfa
What is the brand name for beractant? Survanta
What is the brand name for calfactant? Infasurf
What is the brand name for poractant alfa? Curosurf
What are surfactants primarily composed of? 85% phospolipids: lecithin
What is the function of surfactant? Reduce alveolar surface tension
What type of cells produce surfactant? Alveolar type 2 cells
How is surfactant normally produced? Breathing, yawning
Which two drugs are in Duoneb and Combivent? Albuterol and Ipratropium Bromide
What are the three Leukotriene inhibitors (modifiers)? Montelukast, zafirlukast, and zileuton
What is the brand name for Montelukast? Singulair
What is the brand name for Zafirlukast? Acculate
What is the brand name for Zileuton? Zyflo
Should a bronchodilator be given before or after a corticosteroid? Before
Which of the following terms is NOT synonymous with Sympatholytic? A. Beta 2 - antagonist B. Anti - adrenergic C. Beta 2 - agonist A
Which of the following terms is NOT synonymous with Parasympatholytic? A. Agonist B. Anti - Cholinergic C. Back door A
Which of the following terms is NOT synonymous with Sympathomimetic? A. Beta - agonist B. Front door C. Anti -adrenergic D. Beta - adrenergic C
What type of effect would an anti-cholinergic drug have on the heart rate? Decrease
What type of effect would a cholinergic drug have on the bronchioles? Bronchoconstriction
What drug can be used to treat an acetaminophen overdose? N-Acetylcysteine (Mucomyst)
What are two causes of upper airway edema? Croup and Post-extubation stridor
Created by: ashconrad417