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Weather Ch. 1-3

QuestionAnswer
Science A process used to gain knowledge and understanding of the natural world through observation, investigation and experimentation
Scientific method step 1 Observe and question some aspect of nature
Scientific method step 2 Make a hypothesis (prediction)
Scientific method step 3 Experiment collect data; investigate
Scientific method step 4 Conclusion will either support or disprove your hypothesis
Scientific method step 5 Keep testing, modify the thesis if needed
You never ( ) anything in science, only ( ) the hypothesis? Prove; support
The ATM is very ( )? Thin (thin film of air)
99% of the ATM is within ( ) miles of the earth surface? 19 miles or 30km
You can't survive above ( )? This is called the "( )"? 5 miles or 8km; death zone
Permanent gases Don't change much from place to place or over time: Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (21%), Argon (.93%), Hydrogen, Helium.
Variable gases Can change significantly from place to place or over time: water vapor (H2Ov), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane, Nitrous oxide, ozone (O3. 20-30m up, smog, shield +90% of UV radiation), CFCs (freeon-break down ozone, stay in ATM for 50-70yrs)
H2Ov Water Vapor: most variable gas; invisible
H2Ov enters the ATM by ( ) Evaporation
H2Ov is removed mainly by ( ) Precipitation
H2Ov is the most important gas for ( ) Weather
H2Ov ranges from ( ) 0-4% (as temp drops it gets closer to 0%)
CO2 enters the ATM by ( ) Respiration, plant decay or burn, burning fossil fuels (coal, oil), volcanos, oceans
CO2 is removed from the ATM by ( ) Photosynthesis, rainfall (CO2+H2O=>H2CO3 carbonic acid), oceans
CO2 levels are ( ) due to a ( ) into the ATM Rising; surplus
Lapse rate How fast the temp cools as you go up
Inversion When temps get warmer as you go higher
Main layers in the ATM listed from lowest to highest Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere
Troposphere 9-10 miles up; lapse rate (6.5˚C/km); average=3.6˚F/1000ft.; all weather occurs here
Stratosphere 10-30 miles up; inversion; ozone layer
Mesosphere 30-50 miles up; lapse rate; coldest temps
Thermosphere 50+ miles up; inversion; warmest temps
Pressure P=Force/Area
Force A push or pull
Air pressure The force exerted by the air around you and above you (measured in millibars-mb).
Force exerted around you due to ( ) Air density
Force exerted above you due to ( ) Gravity
Air density AD=# of air molecules/volume of air
Air pressure will always ( ) as you go ( ) in the ATM Decrease; higher up
Average sea level pressure 1013.25 mb
Weather
Climate
Temperature (temp) A measure of the average speed of the atoms or molecules within a substance; any substance has a temp; empty space has no temp
An increase in avg speed results in ( ) Warmer temps
A decrease in avg speed results in ( ) Cooler temps
3 temp scales Fahrenheit (˚F), Celsius (˚C), Kelvin (K-no negative numbers)
Freezing point of pure water 32˚F, 0˚C, 273K
Boiling point of pure water 212˚F, 100˚C, 373K
Absolute zero The coldest temp in nature, 0K, no molecular movement
Conversion formula for ˚F to ˚C ˚C=5/9(˚F-32)
Conversion formula for ˚C to K K=˚C+273
Energy The ability or capacity to do work on something
Work W=Force•Distance
3 basic forms of energy Potential energy, kinetic energy, internal energy
Potential energy (PE) Stored energy; PE(gravitational)=mass•gravity•height; PE-m•g•h
Kinetic energy (KE) Motion-moving (velocity), mass; KE=.5•mass•(velocity²); KE=.5•m•v²
Internal energy Total energy=PE+KE; conservation of energy-energy can't be created or destroyed but can only change forms
Heat The transfer of energy from one location to another
3 forms of heat Specific heat, latent heat, sensible heat
Specific heat The amount of heat energy required to raise 1g of a substance 1˚C; water has a high specific heat compared to land
Latent heat is the ( ) heat transfer during the phase change of a substance (there are 6 possible phase changes) Hidden
(Latent heat) Heat energy is ( ) from surrounding environment going from solid to liquid, etc. taken (cooling process)
(Latent heat) Heat energy is ( ) into the surrounding environment going from gas to liquid, etc. released (warming process)
(Latent heat) Melting Solid to liquid
(Latent heat) Evaporation Liquid to gas
(Latent heat) Sublimation Solid to gas
(Latent heat) Condensation Gas to liquid
(Latent heat) Freezing Liquid to solid
(Latent heat) Deposition Gas to solid
Sensible heat Heat transfer you can feel or measure
Sensible heat only flows when a temp ( ) exists Difference
Sensible heat only flows from ( ) to ( ) Hot; cold
3 forms of sensible heat transfer Conduction, convection, radiation
Conduction Heat transfer from molecule to molecule within a substance; metals tend to be fast conductors; air is a poor conductor
Convection Heat transferred by the mass movement of fluid (air/water); most important for the ATM
Radiation Heat transfer by electromagnetic (EM) waves; most important for earth's surface
Any wave has 2 basic properties ( ) Wavelength (λ)-The distance between 2 similar points on a wave; frequency=# of waves/amount of time
EM waves ( ) Can travel in empty space; travel at the speed of light (186,000 miles/second); amount of energy carried by wave depends on λ; type of radiation depends on λ (EM spectrum)
Some types of radiation Gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS), infrared (IR), microwaves, TV waves, short radio waves, AM radio waves
Radiation is emitted by everything and 2 radiation laws determine Amount or intensity of radiation emitted; type of radiation emitted
Stefan-Boltzman Law Radiation intensity (amount)=σ(sigma)•(temp⁴); sigma=constant #
(SB Law) Warmer temps emit much ( ) intense radiation compared to cooler objects More
(SB Law) The sun emits much ( ) radiation compared to the earth More
(SB Law) EM waves will spread out and become ( ) intense as you move away from the object Less
Wien's Law λmax=constant/temp; warmer objects emit shorter λ's; (inverse relationship between temp and λ)
(Wien's Law) Warmer objects emit ( ) λ's Shorter
(Wien's Law) There is an ( ) relationship between temp and λ Inverse
(Wien's Law) The sun emits ( ) λ's compared to earth Shorter
(Wien's Law) λmax Sun= .55micrometers (VIS)
(Wien's Law) λmax Earth= 10micrometers (Far IR)
1 micrometer= 10⁻⁶ meters=.000001 meters
Far IR 1.5 to 100 micrometers
Near IR .7 to 1.5 micrometers
VIS .4 to .7 micrometers
UV <.4 micrometers
Sun's EM spectrum 7% UV, 37% Near IR, 44% VIS
Earth's EM spectrum Almost all Far IR from 2-30 micrometers
The effect of radiation ( ) over time Accumulates
The ATM absorbs most ( ) radiation UV
The ATM does not absorb ( ) radiation VIS
The ATM ( ) absorbs IR radiation Selectively
Greenhouse effect The ATM allows visible energy to pass through and heat the earth surface while absorbing much of the earth's IR energy trapping the heat (i.e. a car can be hotter inside)
Greenhouse gases (variable gases) Water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, CFCs
Greenhouse gases only make up ( )% of the entire ATM yet keep the earth about ( )˚F warmer compared to having no greenhouse effect 1; 60
Some of the sunlight is not ( ) Absorbed
The sun's energy can be ( ) back into space Scattered or reflected
(Scattering) mainly by ( ) Oxygen and nitrogen
(Scattering) sends energy ( ) in all directions Equally
Volcanic eruptions can ( ) the climate Cool down
Mainly ( ) λ's are scattered during the day Blue
Particles in the ATM scatter ( ) λ's near sunrise and sunset (the more polluted the ATM is, the ( ) the λ scattered) Longer
Albedo % of reflected visible light by a solid or liquid surface
(Albedo) Snow and ice 75-95%
(Albedo) Clouds 40-90%
(Albedo) Land 10-35%
(Albedo) Water <10%
Up to ( )% of the sunlight over the course of a year is scattered or reflected (unused to heat the earth) 30
Seasons Yearly seasonal changes; earth/sun relationship
(Seasons) Earth orbits around the sun ( ) per year Once
(Seasons) Earth spins on its ( ) once per day Axis
(Seasons) One year= 365.25 days
(Seasons) Earth's orbit is not circular it is ( ) Slightly elliptical
Perihelion Near point; Jan. 4; 91.5 million miles
Aphelion Far point; July 4; 94.5 million miles
( )% difference in energy between perihelion and aphelion 7
The Sun can only shine on ( ) of the earth at a time 1/2
Vernal equinox March 20
Summer solstice June 21
Autumnal equinox September 22
Winter solstice December 21
North pole 90˚N
Arctic circle 66.5˚N
Tropic of cancer 23.5˚N
Equator
Tropic of capricorn 23.5˚S
South pole 90˚S
The elliptical orbit around the sun is ( ) because of the reason for seasons NOT
The ( ) creates seasons tilt
The Earth has a tilt of ( )˚ on its axis 23.5
Amount of seasonal changes depends on ( ) Hours of daylight and angle of incidence
High temp of the day usually occurs ( )
Low temps of the day usually occurs ( ) minutes ( ) sunrise
Created by: Matti