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Nursing Pharmacology

Exam 1, Chapters 1-8

Pharmacology Study of the history, sources, and physical and chemical properties of drugs. Looks at the ways in which drugs affect living systems.
Pharmacodynamics Study of the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs. Study of drugs' mechanisms of action.
Pharmacokinetics Study of the absorption, distribution, biotransformation (metabolism), and excretion of drugs.
Pharmacotherapeutics Study of how drugs may best be used in the treatment of illnesses. Study of which drugs would be most appropriate or least appropriate to use for a specific disease; what dose would be required; etc.
Pharmacognosy The study of drugs derived from herbal and other natural (plant and animal) drug sources.
Toxicology Study of poisons and poisonings. All drugs have the potential to become toxic
Ancient Egypt: The cradle of pharmacology These medical sources listed over 700 different remedies for different ailments.
First Century: Dioscorides prepared De Materia Medica Listed and classified 600 different plants used for medicinal purposes; first time plants were ever classified.
Drugs are derived from: Natural sources, Semisynthetic sources, Synthetic sources.
Drug Uses: Symptomatic treatment, prevention, diagnostic drugs, curative, health maintenance, contraception
Dosage Forms: tablets, timed or sustained release, tablets or controlled release, capsule, troches, suppositories, solutions, douche, suspensions, emulsions, topicals (patches), drug implants
Parenteral Product Packaging Ampules: sterile, sealed glass or plastic cntainer, contain a single liquid dose. Vials: either single or multiple dose, glass or plastic container, sterile liquid dose, sealed with a rubber diaphragm.
Drug Names: Chemical Name, Generic Name, Brand Name.
Chemical name: The drug's chemical composition and molecular structure.
Generic name: Name given by the United States Adopted Names Council. Allows the drug to be marketed.
Brand name: Also called trade name. The drug has a registered trademark; use of the name is restricted by the drug's owner, allows the drug to be commercially distributed, the superscript is registered by the U.S. Patent Office and approved by the FDA.
Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 Required all drugs to meet minimal standards.
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 Required the drug to be safe before being distributed over state lines.
1970: Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act Also known as controlled substance act: classified drugs according to their abuse potential. Regulates the manufacture and distribution of drugs causing dependences.
Controlled Substance Schedule I: High potential for abuse, no medical use, ex. Heroin, LSD.
Controlled Substance Schedule II: High potential for abuse, accepted medical use, ex. Morphine, Demerol.
Controlled Substance Schedule III: Lower potential for abuse, accepted medical use, ex. Librium, Valium
Controlled Substance Schedule IV: Lower potential for abuse, accepted medical use, ex. Librium, Valium
Controlled Substance Schedule V: Lowest potential for abuse, accepted medical use, ex. Lomotil, Robitussin A-C.
Principles of Drug Action Alter existing cellular or chemical functions. Exert their action by forming a chemical bond with specific receptors within the body.
Drug receptors The better the fit, the stronger the drug's affinity. The drug effect occurs at
Created by: 1750942977



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