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HBP chapter 2 & 3

Personality traits / perception biases

QuestionAnswer
Agreeableness Trait defined by trust in others, consideration for others, compliance, sympathy. High score tend to be cooperative, show concern, diplomacy. Low score tend to be harsh, no trust in others, be competitive, sure of themselves.
Artistic interests Interests for positions that allow creative expression
Conscientiousness Orderliness, sense of responsibility, self-discipline, deliberateness. High score tend to be hard-working, to study and plan ahead. Low score tend to be more in the present, more spontaneous. It is easily observable but not in a job interview.
Conventional interests Interests for positions that are structured and rule-regulated
Enterprising interests Interests for positions that allow to influence others and attain power
Extraversion Trait defined by warmth, activity level, outgoingness, assertiveness. High score tend to be sociable, need to be stimulated, more active on social media, good leader. Low score tend to be quieter. Easily observable.
Investigative interests Interests for positions that involve thinking, organizing and understanding
Lexical hypothesis Hypothesis that the individual differences that are most salient and socially relevant in people’s lives become encoded into their language
Locus of control Personality trait which refers to the extent to which individuals believe they can control events affecting them
Meyer Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types - Extraversion/Introversion – Sensing/Intuition – Thinking/Feeling – Judging/Perception
Neuroticism / Emotional Reactions Trait defined by worry, quickness to anger, social concerns, sensitivity to stress. High score tend to show more reaction to negative emotions. Low score tend to need more time to get sad/angry.
Openness to change Imagination, willingness to experiment, intellectual curiosity, tolerance for diversity. High score tend to be more philosophical, creative. Low score tend to have less interest for new art trends, more conventional, more practical.
Organizational citizenship behaviors Discretionary behaviors that contribute to the psychological and sociological environment of the workplace
Realistic interests Interests for positions in which physical activities are performed
Social interests Interests for positions that invole helping and developing others
Contrast effect (perception bias) Evaluation of a person's characteristics that is affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics
Fundamental attribution error (perception bias) The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others
Halo effect (perception bias) Tendency to draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic
Leniency (perception bias) When a raters’ tendency is to rate all employees at the positive end of the scale
Primacy effect (perception bias) Tendency to remember better and to consider as more important the pieces of information that come first
Self-fulfilling prophecy A situation in which a person inaccurately perceives a second person, and the resulting expectations cause the second person to behave in ways consistent with the original perception
Similar-to-me effect (perception bias) Tendency to have a positive impression about people who share certain similarities to oneself
Stereotype threat (perception bias) Situation in which there is a risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group
Values What is important in one’s life. "___" are universal but the way people give priorities to values is not. "___" are transsituational; they affect people in different situations.
Power Value focused on social status and prestige, control or dominance over people and resources. Linked to low Openness to change.
Achievement Value focused on personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards. Linked to high conscientiousness and high Extraversion.
Hedonism Value focused on pleasure or sensuous gratification for oneself. Linked to high Extraversion and low Agreeableness.
Stimulation Value focused on excitement, novelty, and challenge in life. Linked to low Conscientiousness, high Extraversion, high Openness to change, and low Agreeableness.
Self-direction Value focused on independent thought and action – choosing, creating, exploring. Linked to high Openness to change and low Agreeableness.
Universalism Value focused on understanding, appreciation, tolerance, and protection for the welfare of all people. Importance for fairness, equality, and justice. Linked to high Openness to change.
Benevolence Value focused on understanding, appreciation, tolerance, and protection for the welfare of all people. Importance for fairness, equality, and justice. Linked to high Openness to change.
Tradition Value focused on respect, commitment, and acceptance of the customs and ideas that traditional culture or religion provide. Linked to high Agreeableness, high Conscientiousness, low Extraversion and low Openness to change.
Conformity Value focused on restraint of actions, inclinations, and impulses likely to upset or harm others and violate social expectations or norms. Linked to high Agreeableness, high Conscientiousness, low Extraversion and low Openness to change.
Security Value focused on safety, harmony, and stability of society, of relationships, and of self. Linked to high Conscientiousness and low Openness to change.
Created by: abbenard