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HBP chapter 1


Chunking Organizing items into familiar, manageable units
Context-dependence phenomenon The fact that memory benefits when the spatio-temporal, mood, physiological, or cognitive context at retrieval matches that present at encoding
Crystallized intelligence Breadth and depth of a person's acquired knowledge of a culture and the effective application of this knowledge
Deep acting Trying to modify one's one true inner feelings based on display rules
Distributed practice Breaking practice and learning up into a number of shorter sessions (in contrast to massed practice)
Dual coding theory Memory is enhanced by forming both verbal and visual codes, since either can lead to recall
Elaboration Linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding
Emotional dissonance Inconsistency between the emotions people feel and the emotions they project
Emotional intelligence The ability to detect and to manage emotional cues and information
Emotional labour Tendency for employees to express organizationnally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work
Encoding The processing of information into the memory system
Eveningness The characteristic of being most active and alert during the evening
Fluid intelligence Refers to mental operations that an individual uses when faced with a novel task that cannot be performed automatically
Forgetting curve Graph that shows how fast forgetting occurs over time (very quickly at first and more slowly then)
Graphology The analysis of the physical characteristics and patterns of handwriting purporting to be able to identify the writer, indicating psychological state at the time of writing, or evaluating personality characteristics
Hypothesis of situational specificity - importance of GMA test Hypothesis that intelligence is not a relevant predictor of performance for all the occupations
Illusion of transparency Tendency for people to overestimate the degree to which their personal mental state is known by others
Levels of processing theory This theory suggests that deeper levels of processing (such as semantic processing ) result in longer-lasting memory codes than shallow processing (such as structural or phonetic)
Long-term memory The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills and experiences
Long-term storage and retrieval The ability to store information in and fluently retrive now or previously acquired information from long-term memory
Massed practice Learning into fewer but longer training sessions (in contrast to distributed practice)
Mental contrasting It is a strategy to compare a desired future with the present reality
Mental reinstatement of context Creating a mental picture of the environment where the information was encountered in order to retrieve it more easily.
Method of loci Taking an imaginary walk along a familiar path where images of items to be remembered are associated with certain locations
Morningness The characteristic of being most active and alert during the morning
Precommitment Strategy of making a first commitment or action that forces you later to pursue the same strategy
Processing speed The ability to fluently and automatically perform cognitive tasks, especially when under pressure to maintain focused attention and concentration
Productive procrastination Strategy of finding an tangent task that should be done and that is more enjoyable than the target task
Rehearsal The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
Retrieval The process of getting information out of memory storage
Retrieval practice Strategy of devoting time during the learning period to retrieve the to-be-remembered information.
Short-term memory Activated memory that holds a few items briefly (20 seconds-1 minute), such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
Storage The retention of encoded information over time
Structured interviews Type of selection interviews in which the questions are constrained as well as the method to analyze the responses of the candidates
Surface acting Hiding one's inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions in response to display rules
Time management matrix Method to categorize activities in terms of relative importance and urgency
Transfer-appropriate processing Proposal that retention is best when the mode of encoding and the mode of retrieval are the same
Unstructured interviews Type of selection interviews in which the interviewer has no constraints in terms of questions that have to be asked and of method of analyzing the responses of the candidates
Using emotions The ability to generate, use, and feel emotion as necessary to communicate feelings or employ them in other cognitive processes
Visual processing The ability to generate, perceive, analyze, synthesize, store, retriev, manipulate, transform and think with visual patterns and stimuli
PQ4R Method Preview: General idea Question: ask yourself question Read: Proofread Reflect: associate reading with question Recite: close book, what did I read? Review: check what is correct
Synchrony effect Tendency to be more focused when we work at our best time of the day
Proximal goal Short term goal
Distal goal Long term goal
Promotion goal "I want to pass"
Prevention goal "I don't want to fail"
Learning goals Having an interest in the subject and try to deepen knowledge on the matter
Performance goals Learning to obtain a grade to pass.
Created by: abbenard
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