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Pharmacology MBC 100

Vocabulary Ch. 21 of The Language of Medicine

addiction Physical and psychological dependence on and craving for a drug.
additive action Drug action in which the combination of two similar drugs is equal to the sum of the effects of each.
aerosol Particles of drug suspended in air and inhaled.
anaphylaxis A hypersensitive state of the body to a foreign protein (antigen) or drug; can produce severe symptoms and shock. Exaggerated hypersensitivity reaction to a previously encountered drug of foreign protein.
antagonistic action Combination of two drugs gives less than an additive effect (action).
antidote Agent given to counteract an unwanted effect of a drug.
brand name Commercial name for a drug; trademark or trade name.
chemical name Chemical formula for a drug.
contraindications Factor in the patient's condition that prevents the use of a drug or treatment.
controlled substances Drugs that produce tolerance and dependence and have potential for abuse or addiction.
dependence Physiologic need for a drug with prolonged use.
dose Amount of drug administered, usually measured in milligrams.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Government agency having the legal responsibility for enforcing proper drug manufacture and clinical use.
generic name Legal noncommercial name for a drug.
iatrogenic Pertaining to an adverse condition that is caused or produced by a physician or a specific treatment. Condition caused by treatment (drugs or procedures) given by physicians or medical personnel.
idiosyncratic reaction Unexpected effect produced in a particularly sensitive patient but not seen in most people.
inhalation Administration of drugs in gaseous or vapor form through the nose or mouth.
medicinal chemistry Study of new drug synthesis; relationship between chemical structure and biological effects.
molecular pharmacology Study of interaction of drugs and their target molecules such as enzymes, or cell surface receptors.
oral administration Drugs are given by mouth.
parenteral administration "Pertaining to other than intestines." Drugs are given by injection into the skin, muscles, or veins (any route other than through the digestive tract).
pharmacist Specialist in preparing and dispensing drugs.
pharmacy Location for preparing and dispensing drugs; also the study of preparing and dispensing drugs.
pharmacodynamics Study of drug effects within the body.
pharmacokinetics Study of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion over a period of time.
pharmacologist specialist in the study of the properties, uses, and side effects of drugs.
pharmacology "Study of drugs." Study of the preparation, properties, uses, and side effects of drugs.
Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR) Reference book that lists drug products.
receptor Target substance with which a drug interacts in the body.
rectal administration Drugs are inserted through the anus into the rectum.
resistance Lack of beneficial response; seen when drugs are unable to control the disease process.
response Desired and beneficial effect of a drug.
schedule Exact timing and frequency of drug administration.
side effect Adverse reaction, usually minor, that routinely results from the use of a drug.
sublingual administration Drugs are given by placement under the tongue.
synergism Combination of two drugs causes an effect that is greater than the sum of the individual effects of each drug alone.
syringe Instrument (tube) for introducing or withdrawing fluids from the body.
tolerance Larger and larger drug doses must be given to achieve the desired effect. The patient becomes resistant tot the action of a drug as treatment progresses.
topical application Drugs are applied locally on the skin or mucous membranes of the body; ointments, creams, and lotions are applied topically.
toxicity Harmful effects of a drug.
toxicology Study of harmful chemicals and their effects on the body.
transport Movement of a drug across a cell membrane into body cells.
United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Authoritative list of drugs, formulas, and preparations that sets a standard for drug manufacturing and dispensing.
vitamin Substance found in foods and essential in small quantities for growth and good health.
ACE inhibitor (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme) Lowers blood pressure by dilating blood vessels. It blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II (a powerful vasocontrictor)
amphetamine Central nervous system stimulant.
analgesic Relieves pain. Pertaining to without sensitivity to pain.
androgen Male hormone.
anesthetic Reduces or eliminates sensation; general and local.
angiotensin II receptor blocker Lowers blood pressure by preventing angiotensin from acting on receptors in blood vessels.
antacid Neutralizes acid in the stomach.
antiandrogen Blocks the formation of androgens or interferes with their effect in tissues.
antiarrhythmic Treats abnormal heart rhythms.
antibiotic Chemical substance, produced by a plant or microorganism, that has the ability to inhibit or destroy foreign organisms in the body.
anticoagulant Prevents blood clotting.
anticonvulsant Prevents convulsions (abnormal brain activity).
antidepressant Relieves symptoms of depression.
antidiabetic Drug given to prevent or treat diabetes mellitus.
antidiarrheal Prevents diarrhea.
antiemetic Prevents nausea and vomiting.
antihistamine Blocks the action of histamine and helps prevent symptoms of allergy.
antinauseant Relieves nausea and vomiting; antiemetic.
antiplatelet Reduces the tendency of platelets to stick together and form a clot.
antiulcer Inhibits the secretion of acid by cells lining the stomach.
antiviral Acts against viruses.
aromatase inhibitor Reduces estrogen in the blood by blocking the enzyme aromatase.
bactericidal Kills bacteria
bacteriostatic Inhibits bacterial growth.
beta blocker Blocks the action of epinephrine at sites on receptors of heart muscle cells, the muscle lining of blood vessels, and bronchial tubes.
bisphosphonate Prevents bone loss in osteoporosis.
caffeine Central nervous stimulant.
calcium channel blocker Blocks the entrance of calcium into heart muscle and muscle lining of blood vessels; used as an antiarrhythmic, antianginal, and antihypertensive.
cardiac glycoside Increases the force of contraction of the heart.
cardiovascular drug Acts on the heart and blood vessels.
cathartic Relieves constipation.
cholesterol-binding drug Binds to dietary cholesterol and prevents its uptake from the gastrointestinal tract.
cholesterol-lowering drug Lowers cholesterol by preventing its production by the liver; statin.
diuretic Increases the production of urine and thus reduces the volume of fluid in the body; antihypertensive.
emetic Promotes vomiting.
endocrine drug Hormone or hormone-like drug.
estrogen Female hormone that promotes development of secondary sex characteristics and supports reproductive tissues.
gastrointestinal drug Relieves symptoms of diseases in the gastrointestinal tract.
glucocorticoid Hormone from the adrenal cortex that raises blood sugar and reduces inflammation.
hypnotic Produces sleep or a trance-like state.
laxative Weak cathartic.
narcotic Habit-forming drug (potent analgesic) that relieves pain by producing stupor or insensibility.
progestin Female hormone that stimulates the uterine lining during pregnancy and is also used in treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding and for hormone replacement therapy.
purgative Relieves constipation; strong cathartic.
respiratory drug Treats asthma, emphysema, and infections for the respiratory system.
sedative Mildly hypnotic drug that relaxes without necessarily producing sleep.
thyroid hormone Stimulates cellular metabolism.
tranquilizer Controls anxiety and severe disturbances of behavior.
bronhcodilator Drug that relaxes the smooth muscle lining bronchial tubes and is used to treat asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis.
chemotherapy Treatment using drugs.
idiosyncrasy An unexpected effect of a drug that is peculiar to an individual.
subcutaneous pertaining to under the skin.
hypodermic Pertaining to under the skin.
synergism Condition of working together, the drug action in which the combination of two drugs causes an effect that is greater than the sum of the individual effects fo each drug alone.
anesthesia Condition of being without nervous sensation.
antihistamine An agent that acts against histamine production in the body. Histamine is released as a result of an allergic reaction.
hypnotic Pertaining to a condition of sleep (a trance-like state).
erythromycin An antibiotic that is produced from a red mold.
narcotic Pertaining to a substance that produces stupor.
oral Pertaining to the mouth.
antipruritic Pertaining to an agent that acts to relieve itching.
antipyretic Pertaining to an agent that acts to relieve fever.
intrathecal Pertaining to within the sheath of membranes surrounding the spinal cord.
toxic Pertaining to poison.
toxicology Study of poisons and the harmful effects of drugs.
vasodilator Substance that causes blood vessels to widen.
intravenous Pertaining to within a vein.
vitamin A substance in foods that is essential in small quantities for growth and good health (life-giving amines).
antidote An agent given to counteract unwanted effect of a drug.
antibiotic A substance that acts against microorganisms, such as bacteria.
synergistic Pertaining to working together.
Created by: Momster



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