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Pharmacology Exam 1

preparation and dispensing of drugs Pharmacy
identification of sources of drugs (plants, animals, minerals) Pharmacognosy
study of the interrelationship of genetic difference and drug effects Pharmacogenetics
art of treating disease with drugs Therapeutics
study of toxic substances Toxicology
List the drug routes of administration Enteral, parenteral, transdermal, inhalation, topical
drug administration through the GI tract Enteral
drug administration through injection Parenteral
drug administration through a patch Transdermal
drug administration through an aerosol Inhalation
drug applied directly to the skin or mucous membrane Topical
Oral, rectal, sublingual, and NG tube are considered __________ routes of administration Enteral
Intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, intrathecal, and intraosseous are considered __________ routes of administration Parenteral
List the stages of drug names Chemical name, code name, generic name, official name, trade (brand) name
indicates the drugs chemicals Chemical name
given by the manufacturer to an experimental chemical that may become a drug Code name
assigned to chemicals when chemicals appear to have good results and manufacturer wants to market the drug Generic name
given when approved for general use and admitted to the US pharmacopeia; generic name becomes official Official name
given by a particular manufacturer that is marketing the drug Trade (brand) name
What is the sympathetic, presynaptic neurotransmitter? ACh (Acetylcholine)
What is the sympathetic, postsynaptic neurotransmitter? NE (Norepinephrine)
What is the parasympathetic, presynaptic neurotransmitter? ACh (Acetylcholine)
What is the parasympathetic, postsynaptic neurotransmitter? ACh (Acetylcholine)
Sympathetic fibers originate from the ___________ region of the spine Thoracolumbar
Parasympathetic nerve fibers originate from the ___________ region of the spine Craniosacrals
What enzymes deactivate norepinephrine? COMT and MAO
What enzyme deactivate acetylcholine? Acetylcholinesterase
What enzyme breaks down ATP? Adenyl Cyclase
What enzyme breaks down GTP? Guanyl Cyclase
What enzyme breaks down cAMP? Phosphodiesterase
What is the mode of action for beta-adrenergic (front door)? Breaks down ATP to cAMP
What is the mode of action for anti-cholinergic (back door)? Block the breakdown of GTP into cGMP
What is the mode of action for xanthine (side door) bronchodilators? Inhibits phosphodiesterase and prevents the breakdown of cAMP
What are the adrenergic receptors? Alpha, Beta 1, Beta 2
What is the effect of stimulation to the alpha adrenergic receptor? Vasoconstriction (increased BP)
What is the effect of stimulation of the beta 1 adrenergic receptor? Increased heart rate and force
What is the effect of stimulation of the beta 2 adrenergic receptor? Bronchodilation
What is the cholinergic receptor found at the effector site? Nicotonic (N)
What is the effect of stimulation to the nicotonic cholinergic receptor? Stimulates the post-synaptic neuron
What is the function of the autonomic nervous system? Acts to maintain a steady state within the body
What does the autonomic nervous system control? Unconscious and autonomic functions
Which type of bronchodilator is not given by aerosol? Theophylline
What terms are synonymous with sympathomimetic? Adrenergics (Alpha/ Beta), Beta/ Alpha Agonists, Front-door meds
What terms are synonymous with anticholinergic? Parasympatholytics, back door meds
Where are drugs metabolized? Liver
Where are drugs excreted? Kidneys
The location where a drug interacts with the receptor is called ___________. Site of action
How a drug produces its affect at the site of action is know as _______________ or "mode of action. Mechanism of actions
The specific location where drug attaches itself to a call is called the _____________. Receptor site
A drug that binds to the receptor and stimulates the receptor's functions is called an _______________. Agonist
A drug that blocks the receptor is called an ______________. Antagonist
The action of two or more agents working together producing an enhanced effect is called _____________. Synergistic effect (synergism)
The time required for the body, tissue, or organ to metabolize or inactivate half the amount of drug is called the ______________. Plasma half life
An unusual response to a drug is called ____________. Idosyncratic effect
The decreased response to a drug due to prolonged use is known as _____________. Tolerance
An agent that influences rate is known as _______________. Chronotropic
A positive chronotropic effect would result in a(n) ____________ rate. Increased
negative or positive effect based on suggestion Placebo effect
Created by: ashconrad417