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NIC Written Exam

ACDHH Workshop

QuestionAnswer
Tenet 1 Interpreters adhere to standards of confidential communication
Tenet 2 Interpreters possess the professional skills and knowledge required for the specific interpreting situation.
Tenet 3 Interpreters conduct themselves in a manner appropriate to the specific interpreting situation.
Tenet 4 Interpreters demonstrate respect for consumers.
Tenet 5 Interpreters demonstrate respect for colleagues, interns, and students of the profession.
Tenet 6 Interpreters maintain ethical business practices.
Tenet 7 Interpreters engage in professional development.
Guiding Principle 1: Confidentiality Interpreters hold a position of trust in their role as linguistic and cultural facilitators of communication. Confidentiality is highly valued by consumers and is essential to protecting all involved.
Guiding Principle 2: Professionalism Interpreters are expected to stay abreast of evolving language use and trends in the profession of interpreting as well as in the American Deaf community.
Guiding Principle 3: Conduct Interpreters are expected to present themselves appropriately in demeanor and appearance. They avoid situations that result in conflicting roles or perceived or actual conflicts of interest.
Guiding Principle 4: Respect for Consumers Interpreters are expected to honor consumer preferences in selection of interpreters and interpreting dynamics, while recognizing the realities of qualifications, availability, and situation.
Guiding Principle 5: Respect for Colleagues Interpreters are expected to collaborate with colleagues to foster the delivery of effective interpreting services. They also understand that the manner in which they relate to colleagues reflected upon the profession in general.
Guiding Principle 6: Business Practices Interpreters are expected to conduct their business in a professional manner whether in private practice or in the employ of an agency or other entity. Professional interpreters are entitled to a living wage based on their qualifications and expertise.
Guiding Principle 6 Continued... Interpreters are also entitled to working conditions conducive to effective service delivery.
Guiding Principle 7: Professional Development Interpreters are expected to foster and maintain interpreter competence and the stature of the profession through ongoing development of knowledge and skills.
Abstract Classifiers classifiers that are smaller than life-size, the shape and movement of which does not necessarily have iconic features.
Abstract language generic and lacking in specificity
Accessibility Modification to building design, program delivery, or forms of communication which will allow Deaf and disabled individuals to gain access to services provided by an institution or agency.
Adventitious Deafness to become deaf at some point after birth
A-Language or L1 One's first language, usually the language your parents speak although this is not always the case, also known as mother tongue or native language.
Ambivalence having both negative and positive feelings about something; common reaction of members of the oppressed group who have both positive and negative feelings about themselves and the minority group they are affiliated with.
Anglicized ASL a form of signing which blends ASL with English-based signs; a contact variety more closely affiliated with ASL than English.
Anglophone a person who uses English-based communication, as compared to French-based communication (common term in Canada for English-speaking people.)
Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada (AVLIC) the national professional association and certifying body of sign language interpreters in Canada; has provincial chapters and a central office in Edmonton, Alberta.
Audism an attitude based on pathological thinking that results in a negative stigma toward anyone who does not hear; like racism or sexism, autism judges, labels and limits individuals on the basis of whether a person hears and speaks. (Coined by Tom Humphries.)
Auditory Feedback Loop the channel through which hearing people hear (and monitor) their own voice as they speak (alternate term: back-channel feedback)
Aural-Oral Languages languages based on a structured set of linguistic rules in which the communication is based on sound; spoken languages throughout the world fall into this category.
Benefactors are Perfect an idea frequently held by members of marginalized groups that members of the oppressor group are somehow super-beings; also referred to as "magical thinking".
Bilingual-Bicultural Education an approach which stresses ASL as the instructional language for all subjects except English, with an ultimate goal of developing competency in both English and ASL, based on the recognition of Deaf people as members of an oppressed minority.
B-Language or L2 refers to one's second language, one acquired by giving in a country where that language is spoken, by interacting frequently with people using that language or by studying the language formally.
Phonology The system of relationships among the speech sounds that constitute the fundamental components of language. ASL (Sign=morpheme/Parameters=phonemes)
ASL Parameters (Phonemes) Handshape Location Movement Palm Orientation NonManual Markers
Morphology The study of the smallest units of a language with meaning. -Word formation
Free Morphemes -Can stand alone -Have meaning independent of additional morphemes.
Bound Morphemes -Must be attached to a free morpheme -Add to or change the meaning of a free morpheme
Inflectional Morphology for English -Adding grammatical info to existing morphemes without creating a new unit or changing meaning. -Free morpheme+Bound Morpheme -Pluralization Pronoun Agreement Tense
Inflectional Morphology for ASL -Duration of event, directionality -Change to the structure/production of the sign, i.e., Time/Aspect and Indicating/Directional verbs
Derivational Morphology Creating new units from existing units -Verbs to nouns -Compounding -Fingerspelling -Lexicalization
Syntax Word Order/The study of the rules for combining words to create sentences. -Descriptive (What language users actually do)
What is ASL's basic word order? SVO: Subject-Verb-Object
What are some variations of the SVO word order in ASL?
What are the question types in ASL -WH: Lowered eyebrows -YES/NO: Raised eyebrows -Rhetorical: Raised eyebrows
What year was the Milan Conference? 1880
What are some key factors about the Milan Conference? -164 delegates, only 1 Deaf -Vote in favor of oral education -USA only to oppose -Sign language banned
Who is Alexander Graham Bell? -Deaf educator -Mother was hard of hearing -Opened the Oral School for the Deaf -Alexander Graham Bell Association (still operating)
Who invented Visible Speech and what is it? -Alexander Graham Bell's father -Visible language using symbols to represent speech sounds.
What year did the Oral School for the Deaf open and where? (Alexander Graham Bell's school) -1872 -Boston -Failed
What year was the National Association of the Deaf formed (NAD)? 1880
What was the original name of the National Association of the Deaf? New England Gallaudet
What year did the NAD change it's name? 1889
When and where did the National Convention of Deaf-Mutes happen and what was it's purpose ? -August 25, 1880 -Cincinnati, Ohio -Edmund booth announces NAD purpose, which is to deliberate the needs of the deaf.
When was the National Fraternal Society of the Deaf (NFSD) founded? 1901
What was the purpose of NFSD? -Life and accident insurance for deaf -March 6, 2010- Last board meeting/Ceased operations
When and where was the Registry of Interpreters created? -June 16, 1964 -Ball State Teachers College in Muncie, Indiana -First national workshop on interpreting for deaf -Discussed establishing organization for interpreters
What is the National Interpreter Training Consortium (NITC) -RSA: Rehabilitation Services Administration funded it in the early 1970s -6 schools implemented the training -California State University, Northridge, Gallaudet, New York University, St. Paul Technical Vocational Institute, Seattle Central, Tennessee.
What year was the TTY invented 1964
What year was "the Babbidge Report" and when was it created. -Congress labeled oral education a "dismal failure" -1964
When was Signed English, SEE, and SEE II created approximately? 1970-1972
What year was Conference of Interpreter Trainers founded? (CIT) 1979
What year were cochlear implants approved? 1985
What year did Marlee Matlin win an Oscar? 1987
What year did Deaf President Now (DPN) happen? 1988
What is the Rehabilitation Act of 1973? -Prohibits discrimination among people with disabilities in Federal programs
What year was the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Section 504 passed? -1978 -Access to education, employment and various programs for people with disability.
What year was the PL 94-142 passed and what is it? -1975 -Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) -mainstream settings favored -FAPE: Free Appropriate Public Education
What year was the Americans with Disabilities Act created? (ADA) -1990 -Amended 2009 -Civil rights law prohibiting discrimination based on disability
ADA Title I Employment
ADA Title II Public Entities and Transportation
ADA Title III Public Accomodations -Any facility open to the public
ADA Title IV Telecommunications -Creation of TRS: Telecommunications Relay Services
Mandatory Reporting Federal and state laws require certain professionals report: -Suspicion of child abuse -suspicion of elder abuse -threats to harm self or others
What was the original name of Gallaudet University and when did it change? -"National College for the Deaf and Dumb" -1893
What year did President Lincoln allow Columbia Institution to give degrees to deaf people? 1864
Who created American School for the Deaf? Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet Laurent Clerc
What year was American School for the Deaf established and where? -1817 -Hartford, Connecticut
What was the original name of American School for the Deaf? Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Person
When was the first public school for the Deaf in Truffaut, France established? 1771
What year was French sign language established? 1760
Who is the father of sign language and deaf education? Abbe Charles Michel de L'Eppe
What are the key factors of Martha's Vineyard -200 Immigrants from England -Full integration of Deaf -Mid-1700s sign language developed (not ASL) -Massachussetts
Helper Model of Interpreting Doing things for and making decisions on behalf of deaf consumer.
Machine or Conduit Model of Interpreting -Say what they said and nothing more. -Opposite of helper
Communication Facilitator Model of Interpreting Interpreter manages and facilitates the logistics of the interpreted communication. Closer to the Machine model.
Bilingual-Bicultural Model of Interpreting Uses knowledge of both languages and culture to minimize differences and facilitate clear communication.
Translation Frozen text to frozen text
Transliteration English grammatical structure with conceptually accurate signs.
Things to consider when interpreting for Deaf-Blind -Dark clothing, high on neck, cover arms -Limit perfume -De-emphasize facial expressions -Consumers preferred method of communication -Variety of methods used to prevent fatigue -Tadoma, palm writing, close signing, tactile
Clozure Skills Using context clues to fill in the gaps
Prediction Skills Educated guesses on what may be said based on given info and previous experience.
Glossing Word for word representation of ASL signs using English equivalents.
Error Correction Informing both parties that an error occurred in the interpretation and correcting it.
Ideal Interpreter Placement and Lighting -Line of sight from deaf consumer, speaker, visual aids -Well lit area; avoid backlighting, shadows, too bright -Lit from multiple angles -Solid backdrop -Clear of high traffic
The preferred language/mode of communication for culturally Deaf people and the Deaf community. ASL
A universal form of communication Mime
Gestural/Visual Vernacular type of signing similar to ASL
Simultaneous Communication (SimCom) Signing and speaking at the same time
Total Communication Educational philosophy designed to support communication of D/HH students in any way possible. -Fingerspelling, sign language, lip reading, auditory training, and writing
Hearing culture vs. Deaf culture -Hearing: Low Context, Individualistic, Progress oriented -Deaf: High Context, Collectivists, Tradition oriented
Deaf culture A Linguistic minority group (bilingual community).
Southern Black Deaf Culture During segregation, ASL at black deaf schools and white deaf schools developed separately. -Some older black deaf people never integrated (prefer old signing style)
Code of Ethics Intended to protect and guide interpreters and consumers -certified and uncertified
RID Member Sections -Deaf Caucus -Educational -Legal -Terps with Deaf Parents -Interpreter Service Managers -Interpreters and Transliterators of Color -LGBT terps -VRS/VRI -Student
Phonemes Smallest unit without meaning
Morphemes Smallest unit with meaning
Modes of Communication -Pidgin Sign English (PSE) -Manually Coded English (MCE) -Rochester Method -Signing Exact English (SEE I, SEE II) -Linguistics of Visual English (LOVE) -Conceptually Accurate Signed English (CASE) -Cued Speech -Visible Speech -Tadoma
Dynamic Equivalence Factors -Content: Info -Context: Circumstances -Affect -Meaning -Register -Intent -Cultural/Linguistic Mediation
Semantics: Types of Meaning-Referential A sign or sentence that refers to an idea, things, or state of affairs. (Denotative)
Semantics: Types of Meaning-Social Idiosyncratic use of or production of a sign by a specific group of language users. (connotative meaning)
Semantics: Types of Meaning-Affective Provides info about the signer's feelings, attitude, or opinion about a topic (connotative)
TDI Telecommunications for the Deaf, Inc.
BTNRH Boys Town National Research Hospital
NAOBI National Association of Black Interpreters
NBDA or BDA National Black Deaf Advocates
HLAA Hearing Loss Association of America
ASLTA American Sign Language Teacher's Association
ALDA Association of Late Deafened Adults
AADB American Association of the Deaf-Blind
WFD World Federation of the Deaf
VR Vocational Rehabilitation
AGBAD Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing
SHHH Self Help for Hard of Hearing People
NTID National Technical Institute for the Deaf
Task 1 Assess each interpreting situation to determine if qualified for the assignment.
Task 2 Prepare for an assignment by determining logistics and purpose of interaction for all parties involved.
Task 3 Maintain competence in the field of interpreting. (e.g. Attending workshops and classes, reading professional literature, working with a mentor.
Task 4 Apply the code of professional conduct for the interpreting profession.
Task 5 Provide interpreting services that reflect awareness and sensitivity to culturally and ethnically diverse groups.
Task 6 Facilitate the flow of communication during the interpreting process.
Task 7 Apply the appropriate communicative mode and language register.
Task 8 Construct equivalent discourse in the target language while monitoring message comprehension and feedback to modify interpretation accordingly.
Task 9A Use ASL proficiently within expressive interpreting tasks, including choice of sign vocabulary, use of sign modification to show variation in meaning and grammatical function, and appropriate use of space, facial expression, and body movement.
Task 9B Comprehend ASL proficiently during the interpreting task, including sign vocabulary choice and sign modification to show variation in meaning and grammatical function.
Task 10A Use English proficiently to construct an equivalent message in the target language, including appropriate vocabulary choice, tone, grammar, and syntax with appropriate use of register, pausing, rhythm, intonation, pitch, and Supra-segmental features.
Task 10B Comprehend English proficiently to construct an equivalent message in the target language, including appropriate vocabulary choice, tone, grammar, syntax, appropriate use of register, abusing, rhythm, intonation, pitch, and Supra segmental features.
Created by: Tiffsherm