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A & P 2 - Final Exam

QuestionAnswer
What type of tissue is blood classified as? Liquified connective tissue
What is the function of erythrocytes? Transport O2 and CO2
What is the normal value of erythrocytes? 4-6 million/mm3
What is the function of leukocytes? Body's defense mechanism
What is the normal value of leukocytes? 5-10k/ mm3
What is the function of thrombocytes? Blood clotting
What is the normal value of thrombocytes? 150-400k/mm3
What is the function of hemoglobin? Iron containing pigment of RBCs that binds and transports O2 and CO2
What is the normal value of hemoglobin? 12-16 g/dL
What is hematocrit? Percentage of RBCs in relation to the total blood volume
What is the normal value of hematocrit? 40-50%
Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to capillaries of organs and tissues Arteries
Carry deoxygenated blood from tissues and organs to the heart Veins
Small blood vessels whose walls permit exchange of gases, nutrients, and wastes between plasma and interstitial fluid Capillaries
What is the average blood volume of an adult? 4-6 L
What plasma protein maintains osmotic pressure? Albumin
What is the life span of RBCs? 120 days
What is the term for a bluish discoloration of the nail beds? Peripheral cyanosis
What is the term for a bluish discoloration of the lips and oral mucosa? Central cyanosis
Of the two types of cyanosis, which is urgent? Central cyanosis
What is the yellowish discoloration of the skin, typically caused by increased bilirubin? Jaundice
Hemoglobins affinity for carbon monoxide is how many times greater than it is for oxygen? 250 times
Where is insulin produced in the body? Pancreas
What type of WBC will most likely increase in an allergic reaction? Eosinophils
What is the term for increased WBCs? Leukocytosis
What is the term for decreased WBCs? Leukopenia
What is coagulation? Formation of a blood clot
What blood type is the universal donor? O
What blood type is the universal recipient? AB
Why can't someone with type B blood receive type A blood? Anti A antigens
How does gas exchange across the capillary walls occur? Diffusion
What is the most common site for the pulse and ABGs? Radial
What is the average cardiac output of an adult? 4-8 L/ min
Where are the atrioventricular valves located? Between the atria and ventricles
What valve lies between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk? Pulmonary (pulmonic) valve
What is the only artery in the body that does not carry oxygenated blood? Pulmonary
What is the sac that surrounds the heart? Pericardium
What blood vessels return blood to the heart from the systemic circuit? IVC/ SVC
What blood vessels return blood to the heart from the pulmonary circulation? Pulmonary veins
Through what blood vessel does blood leave the heart and enter the systemic circulation? Arteries
Through what blood vessel does blood leave the heart and enter the pulmonary circulation? Pulmonary arteries
What is the pacemaker of the heart? Sinoatrial (SA) node
What rate does the SA node keep? 60-100 BPM
What node takes over if the pacemaker fails? Atrioventricular node (AV)
What rate does the AV node keep? 40-60 BPM
What takes over if the AV node fails? Purkinje fibers
On an EKG, what represents atrial depolarization? P wave
On an EKG, what represents ventricular depolarization? QRS complex
On an EKG, what represents ventricular repolarization? T wave
What is the average blood pressure of an adult? 120/80 mmHg
What is the normal range for systolic blood pressure? 100-140 mmHg
What is the normal range for diastolic blood pressure? 60-90 mmHg
What is the term for high blood pressure? Hypertension
How does the process of depolarization effect the ventricles? Ventricles contract
Ventricular depolarization is also known as.... Systole
The process of repolarization causes the ventricles to... Relax
Ventricular repolarization is also known as...... Diastole
What is an acute circulatory crisis marked by low blood pressure and inadequate peripheral blood flow known as? Hypovolemic shock
What is another name for septic shock? Blood poisoning
What is shock caused by an allergic reaction known as? Anaphylactic shock
What is shock caused by a poorly functioning heart known as? Cardiogenic shock
What is shock caused by low blood volume known as? Hypovolemic shock
The larynx and above is known as the _______ respiratory tract. Upper
Everything below the larynx is considered the _______ respiratory tract. Lower
What is the movement of air in and out of the lungs known as? Ventilation
What is the exchange of O2 and CO2 known as? Respiration
What are the functions of the nose? Filter, humidify, and warm inhaled air
What structure in the upper airway is an important anatomical landmark for endotracheal intubation? Vallecula epiglottica
What is the bifurcation for the trachea into the right and left mainstream bronchi known as? The corina
How is the smooth muscle of the bronchiole effected by sympathetic stimulation? Bronchodilation
How is the smooth muscle of the bronchioles affected by parasympathetic stimulation? Bronchoconstriction
List the structures of the conducting airways Trachea, mainstem bronchi, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, subsegmental bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
List the structures of the respiratory airways Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli
Across what membrane does gas exchange in the lungs occur? Alveolar capillary (AC) membrane
How many lobes are in the right lung? Three
How many lobes are in the left lung? Two
How many segments are in the right lung? 10
How many segments are in the left lung? Eight
What is the lingula? The lower portion of the left upper lung
Blood vessels, nerves, and the mainstem bronchi enter through the ______ of the lung? Hilum
What is the function of type 1 alveolar cells? Thin, form 95% of the alveolar surface
What is the function of type 2 alveolar cells? Produce pulmonary surfactant
What is the function of type 3 alveolar cells? Alveolar macrophage
What type of respiration occurs in the lungs? External
What type of respiration occurs in the tissues of the body? Internal
The heart, esophagus, and trachea are located in the..... Mediastinum
What are the muscles normally used during Inspiration? Diaphragm and external Intercostals
What is the primary muscle of Inspiration? Diaphragm
What nerve innervates the diaphragm? Phrenic
What muscles are used for forced Expiration? Abdominals and internal Intercostals
What muscles are used for forced Inspiration? Scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis major, trapezius
What is the term for low oxygen in the blood? Hypoxemia
What is the term for low levels of oxygen in the tissues? Hypoxia
What is the abbreviation for partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood? PaO2
What is the normal value for PaO2? 80-100 mmHg
What is the first sign of hypoxia? Tachycardia
Where are the central chemoreceptors located? CNS (Medulla)
What are the central chemoreceptors sensitive too? Increased CO2 and increased H+ in CSF
Where are peripheral chemoreceptors located? Carotid and aortic bodies
What are peripheral chemoreceptors sensitive too? Decrease oxygen and increased H+ in arterial blood
What is the major regulator of respirations? CO2
What is the term for a CO2 level above normal? Hypercapnia
What is the term for a CO2 level below normal? Hypocapnia
Pneumonia is a condition in which the alveoli are filled with ______. Fluid
A chronic condition which results in inflammation of the bronchi is also known as _______. Chronic bronchitis
Inflammation of the pleural membrane is known as _______. Pleurisy
A condition in which the alveolar walls become damaged and air trapping occurs is known as ______. Emphysema
_______ results form spastic Muscles of the bronchioles. Asthma
IRV+VT+ERV+RV= Total lung capacity (TLC)
IRV+VT+ERV= Vital capacity (VC)
IC = VT+IRV
FRC= RV+ERV
The total amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a normal exhalation is termed..... Expiratory reserve volume
The amount of air left in the lungs that cannot be exhaled is term.... Residual volume
The amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal tidal volume is termed.... Inspiratory reserve volume
The total amount of air that is in the lungs after a full inhalation is termed...... Vital capacity
What are the functions of the renal system? Excretion, elimination, and homeostatic regulation
What are the main structures of the renal system? Kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
What is the function of the kidneys? Produce urine
What is the function of the ureter? Transport urine to bladder
What is the function of the urinary bladder? Stores urine prior to elimination
What is the function of the urethra? Conducts urine to the exterior
What organ controls bicarbonate excretion? Kidneys
What drug promotes the production of urine? Diuretic
What are the two tests for kidney function? Blood urea nitrogen and plasma creatinine
What is the best test for kidney function? Plasma creatinine
Decreased RBCs Anemia
Increased lumen in bronchioles Bronchodilation
Blood in the pleural space Hemothorax
The portion of the tidal volume that does not participate in gas exchange Deadspace
Increased lumen in the blood vessels Vasodilation
Higher than normal heart rate Tachycardia
Deceased blood flow to an organ Ischemia
Higher than normal blood sugar Hyperglycemia
Fluid in the pleural space Pleural effusion
Oxygen bound to hemoglobin Oxyhemoglobin
Decreased lumen of blood vessels Vasoconstriction
The membrane that lines the thoracic cavity Parietal pleura
A traveling blood clot Embolus
Increased RBCs Polycythemia
Carbon monoxide bound to hemoglobin Carboxyhemoglobin
Process of tissue death caused by the blockage of blood flow to an organ Infarction
Collapsed alveoli Atelectasis
Lower than normal heart rate Bradycardia
A blood clot that is at the site of origin Thrombus
Air in the pleural space Pneumothorax
Decreased lumen of the bronchioles Bronchoconstriction
An excess accumulation of fluid in the tissues Edema
The membrane that lines the lungs Visceral pleura
Mucus producing cells Goblet cells
Provides collateral circulation between adjacent alveoli Pores of Kohn
Decreases surface tension in alveoli Surfactant
Created by: ashconrad417