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### SPC Advanced Modalities Unit 1

Define Scalars? Graphs based on time. i.e., Pressure, flow, and volume graphed over time.
4 measurements associated with waveforms? 1. Time 2. Pressure 3. Flow 4. Volume
Where does the greatest rate of change occur on a XY graph? At the beginning of the event
Define Time Constants? Characterized the rate of change of the function over a period of time. Time interval like min or sec.
Difference between short and long time constants? 1. Short time constant imply a fast rate of change. 2. Long time constant imply a slow rate of change.
Importance of exponential function when charting an event? A mathematical function that describes an event where the rate of change of one variable is proportional to its magnitude.
What variable is held constant in charting XY graphs? Time
Difference between rising and decaying exponential functions? 1. Rising exponential function expresses an increase of one variable as a function of time. 2. Express the decrease of one variable as a function of time.
Why is a curved line inherent to exponential function? With exponential functions the rate of change is not constant over a period of time, and therefore, a curved line is formed.
5 factors that influence waveform? 1. Lung/Chest compliance 2. Raw 3. Flowrate 4. Rate 5. Volume
2 effects of loss lung compliance? 1. Reduced volume space availability- The lung has less space for expansion within the lung 2. Reduced available lung volume- The actual size has been reduced outside the lung
7 causes of loss lung compliance? ARDS, Atelectasis, Pneumothorax, Pneumonia, Pulmonary Edema, Mainstem intubation, and Pleural effusion
2 causes pf loss chest compliance? Obesity & Thoracic bone disorder
When is Raw a factor? When it has to do with flow
4 causes of increased Raw? 1. Mucus buildup in airways 2. Bronchospasm 3. Biting oral E/T tube 4. Kinked E/T tube
8 causes of increased PIP? 1. Bronchospasm 2. Mainstem intubation 3. Mucus plug 4. Coughing 5. Pneumothorax 6. Tachypnea - out of phase 7. Seizure 8. Patient “fighting the ventilator”
Relationship of high and low flowrate and RAW? 1. High Flow = greater turbulence = greater RAW 2. Low flow = lesser turbulence = lower RAW
T/F With low compliance more pressure is REQUIRED for a set volume? True
With constant pressure, if RAW is increased what happens to volume? Volume will fall as Raw rises.
With variable pressure, if RAW in increased what happens to volume? Volume is unchanging but pressure requirements increase.
2 factors that influence the shape of the waveform? Compliance and RAW
5 variables of mechanical ventilation? 1. Frequency 2. Time 3. Flow 4. Pressure 5. Volume
5 types of flow curves? 1. Rectangular 2. Sinusoidal 3. Ascending 4. Descending 5. Exponential (Decay)
What are the 2 pressure curves? 1. Rectangular 2. Exponential (increasing/rising)
What are the two volume curves? 1. Sinusoidal 2. Ascending Ramp
How is peep used on a time/pressure graph? PEEP elevates the baseline
Falling baseline means what? There is a leak- cuff leak of circuit leak
Rising baseline means what? Auto-PEEP problems
Created by: Langhout1418
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