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# Adv. Mode Unit 1

### SPC Advanced Modalities Unit 1

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Define Scalars? | Graphs based on time. i.e., Pressure, flow, and volume graphed over time. |

4 measurements associated with waveforms? | 1. Time 2. Pressure 3. Flow 4. Volume |

Where does the greatest rate of change occur on a XY graph? | At the beginning of the event |

Define Time Constants? | Characterized the rate of change of the function over a period of time. Time interval like min or sec. |

Difference between short and long time constants? | 1. Short time constant imply a fast rate of change. 2. Long time constant imply a slow rate of change. |

Importance of exponential function when charting an event? | A mathematical function that describes an event where the rate of change of one variable is proportional to its magnitude. |

What variable is held constant in charting XY graphs? | Time |

Difference between rising and decaying exponential functions? | 1. Rising exponential function expresses an increase of one variable as a function of time. 2. Express the decrease of one variable as a function of time. |

Why is a curved line inherent to exponential function? | With exponential functions the rate of change is not constant over a period of time, and therefore, a curved line is formed. |

5 factors that influence waveform? | 1. Lung/Chest compliance 2. Raw 3. Flowrate 4. Rate 5. Volume |

2 effects of loss lung compliance? | 1. Reduced volume space availability- The lung has less space for expansion within the lung 2. Reduced available lung volume- The actual size has been reduced outside the lung |

7 causes of loss lung compliance? | ARDS, Atelectasis, Pneumothorax, Pneumonia, Pulmonary Edema, Mainstem intubation, and Pleural effusion |

2 causes pf loss chest compliance? | Obesity & Thoracic bone disorder |

When is Raw a factor? | When it has to do with flow |

4 causes of increased Raw? | 1. Mucus buildup in airways 2. Bronchospasm 3. Biting oral E/T tube 4. Kinked E/T tube |

8 causes of increased PIP? | 1. Bronchospasm 2. Mainstem intubation 3. Mucus plug 4. Coughing 5. Pneumothorax 6. Tachypnea - out of phase 7. Seizure 8. Patient “fighting the ventilator” |

Relationship of high and low flowrate and RAW? | 1. High Flow = greater turbulence = greater RAW 2. Low flow = lesser turbulence = lower RAW |

T/F With low compliance more pressure is REQUIRED for a set volume? | True |

With constant pressure, if RAW is increased what happens to volume? | Volume will fall as Raw rises. |

With variable pressure, if RAW in increased what happens to volume? | Volume is unchanging but pressure requirements increase. |

2 factors that influence the shape of the waveform? | Compliance and RAW |

5 variables of mechanical ventilation? | 1. Frequency 2. Time 3. Flow 4. Pressure 5. Volume |

5 types of flow curves? | 1. Rectangular 2. Sinusoidal 3. Ascending 4. Descending 5. Exponential (Decay) |

What are the 2 pressure curves? | 1. Rectangular 2. Exponential (increasing/rising) |

What are the two volume curves? | 1. Sinusoidal 2. Ascending Ramp |

How is peep used on a time/pressure graph? | PEEP elevates the baseline |

Falling baseline means what? | There is a leak- cuff leak of circuit leak |

Rising baseline means what? | Auto-PEEP problems |