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PTA Pulm Patho

Pulmonary Pathologies

TermDefinition
Asthma - Description Chronic inflammation of airways caused by increased hypersensitivity to various stimuli
Asthma - Etiology Triggers - respiratory infection, allergens, cold air exposure or sudden temp change, cigarettes/smoke, excitement/stress, exercise
Asthma - s/s Varies - wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath; dyspnea, flaring nostrils, diminished wheezing, anxiety, cyanosis, inability to speak; respiratory failure if untreated
Asthma - Treatment Reduce exposure to triggers; Anti-inflammatory agents for prevention; bronchodilators for relaxing inflamed airway; PT - care giver edu, airway clearance, breathing exercises, relaxation, endurance and strength training
Bronchitis - Description Inflammation of bronchi; hypertrophy of mucus secreting glands, increased mucus secretion, mucus blockage, insufficient oxygen; productive cough for 3 months over 2 consecutive years
Bronchitis - Etiology Acute - cold viruses; exposure to smoke and other air pollutants Chronic - cigarette smoking (most common cause); exposure to air pollutants; dust; toxic gas
Bronchitis - s/s All - persistent cough with production of thick sputum; increased use of accessory muscles to breath; wheezing; dyspnea; increased pulmonary artery pressure Chronic - cough that is worse in the morning and cold weather; frequent respiratory infections
Bronchitis - Treatment Relieve symptoms and improve breathing Acute - rest, fluids, breathing warm moist air, cough suppresants and aspirin Chronic - antibiotics, anti inflammatory, bronchodilators Lifestyle changes - stop smoking, humidifier, face mask, pulmonary rehab
Pulmonary Rehabilitation Airway clearance, breathing exercises, and endurance/strength training
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) - Description Group of lung diseases that block airflow due to narrowing of bronchial trees; chronic bronchitis + emphysema; damage caused by chronic asthmatic attacks; Progression - alveolar destruction & air trapping; increase total lung capacity and residual volume
COPD - Etiology Majority - long term smoking or exposure to smoke Some- air pollutants; occupational fumes Rare - genetic disorder causes low levels of a protein
COPD - S/S Excessive mucus production, chronic productive cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, fatigue, and reduced exercise capacity
COPD - Treatment Meds - bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, supplemental oxygen, antibiotics Surgery - lung volume reduction; bullectomy; lung transplant Lifestyle - stop smoking, influenza shots, avoid irritants, maintain good nutrition, pulmonary rehab
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) - Description Autosomal recessive genetic disease of exocrine glands; primarily affects lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, sinuses, sex organs; inheret 2 faulty CF genes, 1 from each parent
CF - Etiology Mutation on chromosome 7; Defective gene and it's protein products cause production of unusually thick, sticky mucus; leads to life threatening lung infections, obstructs pancreas and inhibits normal digestion/absorption of food
CF - S/S Varies - salty tasting skin, persistent productive cough, frequent lung infections, wheezing, shortness of breath, poor growth/weight gain with good appetite, and frequent greasy/bulky stools
CF -Tx Meds - antibiotics, nutritional supplements, mucolytics, bronchodilators PT - airway clearance, assisted coughing, breathing techniques, and ventilatory mm training General exercise for all except with severe lung disease
Emphysema - Description Alveolar walls are gradually destroyed; alveoli are turned into large irregular pockets with gaping holes in the walls; elastic fibers that hold open bronchioles are destroyed and they collapse during exhale not letting air escape; dead space increases
Emphysema - Etiology Smoking is leading cause 1-2% of people produce not enough protein that protects elastin and enzymes propagate
Emphysema - S/S Shortness of breath; wheezing, chronic coughing, orthopnea, barrel chest, increased use of accessory mm's, increased respiratory rate, fatigue and reduced exercise capacity
Emphysema - Tx Meds - broncho dilators, inhaled steroids, supplemental oxygen, antibiotics Surgery - lung volume reduction, bullectomy, lung transplant Lifestyle - stop smoking, annual influenza shot, avoid irritants, maintain good nutrition, and pulmonary rehab
Pneumonia - Description Inflammation of the lungs; alveoli membrane break down
Pneumonia - Etiology Usually caused by bacterial, viral, fungal or parasitic infection
Pneumonia - S/S Varies - fever, cough, shortness of breath, sweating, shaking chills, chest pain with breathing, headache, mm pain and fatigue
Pneumonia - Tx Varies - antibiotics for bacterial and myoplasma Antivirals for a few forms of viral Antifungal for fungus All - rest and drink plenty of fluids
Pulmonary Edema - Description Fluid collects in alveoli making it difficult to breath; Acute is a medical emergency
Pulmonary Edema - Etiology L ventricle failure; pressure builds in L atrium and then the pulmonary veins and capillaries and fluid is pushed through capillary walls into alveoli Non-cardiac - pneumonia, exposure to a toxin or medication, smoke, respiratory distress, high elevation
Pulmonary Edema - S/S Sudden symptoms - extreme shortness of breath and difficulty breathing; feeling of suffocating or drowning; gasping; anxiety; restlessness; coughing; frothy, bloody sputum; chest pain and rapid irregular pulse
Pulmonary Edema - Tx Variable - supplemental oxygen, medications, lifestyle change
Acute Pulmonary Edema - Life Threatening - Call an ambulance Extreme SOB with profuse sweating; bubbly/wheezy/gasping during breathing; Cough production frothy sputum maybe with blood; cyanotic; rapid irregular pulse; severe drop in BP
Pulmonary Embolism (PE) - Description 1+ arteries in the lungs become blocked; can be life threatening; prompt tx saves lives
Pulmonary Embolism (PE) - Etiology Mostly, blood clots from LE's
Pulmonary Embolism (PE) - S/S Varies - sudden onset SOB; chest pain that worsens with deep breathing, coughing, eating or bending; coughing bloody sputum; wheezing; LE swelling; excess sweating; rapid or irregular pulse; light-headed; fainting
Pulmonary Embolism (PE) - Tx Prompt anticoagulants and thrombolytics Surgery - clear clot or insert filter into inferior vena cava Preventing deep leg veins - compression stockings, pneumatic compression, physical activity and drinking fluids
Restrictive Lung Disease (RLD) - Description Abnormal reduction in lung expansion and pulmonary ventilation
Restrictive Lung Disease (RLD) - Etiology Abnormal lung parenchyma, abnormal pleura, and disorders affecting ventilator pumps function
Restrictive Lung Disease (RLD) - s/s Dyspnea on exertion; persistent non productive cough; increased respiratory rate; hypoxemia; decreased vital capacity; abnormal breath sounds; reduced exercise tolerance
Restrictive Lung Disease (RLD) - Tx Varies - antibiotics; mechanical ventilation; supplemental oxygen; nutrition support and pulmonary rehab
Created by: ashleighobrien