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PTA Cardio Patho

Cardio Pathologies

Aneurysm - definition Localized, abnormal blood vessel dilation, usually an artery
Aneurysm - etiology congenital defect; weakness in vessel wall due to HTN; connective tissue disease; trauma; infection
Aneurysm - Signs and Symptoms Variable based on site; Aortic - usually asymptomatic but can cause abdominal pain, low back pain and pulsations at navel; Cerebral - sudden/severe headache, nausea, vomiting, stiff neck, seizure, loss of consciousness, double vision
Aneurysm - Treatment Anti hypertensive medication as necessary; surgery as allowable and neccessary
Angina Pectoris - definition Transient precordial sensation of pressure or discomfort resulting from myocardial ischemia; common types - stable angina, unstable angina and variant angina
Stable Angina - definition occurs at predictable level of exertion, exercise or stress and responds to rest and nitroglycerin
Unstable Angina - definition Usually more intense than stable angina; lasts longer, is precipitated by less exertion; occurs spontaneously at rest; is progressive
Variant Angina - definition AKA Prinzmetal; occurs due to coronary artery spasm and coronary artery disease
Angina Pectoris - Etiology Inadequate blood flow and oxygen of the heart muscle due to coronary artery disease
Angina Pectoris - Signs and Symptoms Pressure, heaviness, fullness, burning or aching behind the sternum, but also felt throughout upper body and neck; may also have difficulty breathing, nausea, vomiting, sweating, anxiety, fear; triggered with strong emotion or exertion; subsides with rest
Angina Pectoris - Treatment Acute - supplemental oxygen, nitroglycerin and rest Chronic - long acting nitrates, beta blockers and calcium channel blockers When meds are not effective - stenting or artery bypass
Atherosclerosis - definition A slow progressive accumulation of fatty plaque on the inside of vessel walls; over time restrict blood flow and cause a clot
Atherosclerosis - Etiology Exact cause is unknown; damage or injury to inner wall of artery from HTN, high cholesterol, smoking or diabetes; materials build up at site of injury and cause the narrowing
Atherosclerosis - S/S Varies Coronary - angina pectoris Cerebral - numbness and weakness of extremities, difficult/slurred speech, drooping face Peripheral - intermittent claudication
Atherosclerosis - treatment Lifestyle Change - smoking cessation, regular exercise, healthy diet, stress management Medications - anti-hypertensive, anti-platelet, anti-lipidemic Surgical - angioplasty, endarterectomy, bypass
Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI) - Definition Condition in which veins and valves in LE's are damaged and can't keep blood flowing toward the heart; veins remain filled with blood
Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI) - Etiology Weak/damaged valves in veins; Risk factors: age, female, obesity, pregnancy, prolonged sitting or standing
Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI) - S/S Leg swelling, varicose veins, aching, heaviness, cramping, itching, redness and/or skin ulcers on LE's
Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI) - Treatment Compression stockings, elevations, varicose vein stripping, skin ulcer care
Core Pulmonale -Description AKA Pulmonary heart disease; Hypertrophy of the R ventricle due to altered lung function or structure
Core Pulmonale - Etiology Pulmonary HTN due to chronically increased resistance in pulmonary circulation
Core Pulmonale - S/S Progressive shortness of breath, especially with exertion; fatigue, palpitations, atypical chest pain, LE swelling, dizziness, syncope
Core Pulmonale - Treatment Supplemental oxygen to keep greater than 90% or 60 mm Hg; diuretics and anticoagulants
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) - Description Narrowing or blockage of coronary arteries due to atheromatous plaques that decrease blood flow.
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) - Etiology Damage or injury to inner layer of artery; Fatty plaques and waste accumulate at site of injury; If it ruptures platelets will cluster; Risk factors: high LDL, low HDL, Diabetes II, smoking, obesity and inactivity, genetics, HTN, and hypothyroid
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) - S/S Angina, shortness of breath, heart attack; severity depends on severity of blockage; >70% of lumen is occluded before most s/s are experienced
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) - Treatment Smoking cessation, weight loss, heart healthy diet, regular exercise, control of HTN and diabetes; Drugs: anti-platelet agents, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, and statins; Surgery: angioplasty and coronary artery bypass
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) - Description Blood clot formation in 1+ of the deep veins, usually LE. Can break off and become an embolism in lungs, pancreas, etc.
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) - Etiology Any impairment to normal circulation or blood clotting; prolonged sitting or laying; genetics; injury/surgery; pregnancy; cancer; birth control; hormone replacement; obesity; smoking
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) - S/S 50% of cases are asymptomatic; Can have swelling, pain, redness and warmth in affected leg.
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) - Treatment Prevent progression and embolism; anticoagulants; thrombolytic agents; compression stockings
Heart Failure - Description AKA Congestive Heart Failure; Progressive condition; the heart cannot maintain cardiac output to meet demand; ventricles weaken and dilate; typically begins with L ventricle; congestive refers to blood backing up in other vital organs
Heart Failure - Etiology Damage/weakness of heart; CAD; HTN; diabetes II; MI; abnormal heart valves; cardiomyopathy
Heart Failure - S/S Shortness of breath; fatigue; weakness; swelling of LE and abdomen; rapid/irregular heart beat; persistent cough of wheeze; fluid retention
Heart Failure - Treatment Repair, pace maker, etc; combo of medications, devices and lifestyle change; anticoagulants; anti-hypertensives; digitalis (for contraction); stop smoking; low sodium; weight control; fluid control; limit alcohol; stress reduction; exercise
Hypertension - Description Arterial HTN: adults - sustained BP - 140+ sys or 90+ dias; children - consistently 95+ percentile of BP distribution
Hypertension - Etiology Primary/essential - idiopathic; secondary - identified cause (usually renal disease)
Hypertension - S/S Typically asymptomatic until complications arise with organs; Severe (DBP > 120) - confusion, cortical blindness, hemiparesis, seizures; CNS losses; cardiovascular symptoms (chest pain, dyspnea, etc) and renal problems
Hypertension - Treatment Lifestyle - 30+ min aerobic most days; BMI at 18-25; stop smoking; low sodium; low alcohol; increase produce; decrease fat (saturated fat); Meds - diuretics, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors; vasodilator; andgiotenson II inhibitors
Hypertension Classifications Normal - <120/80 Prehypertensive - 120-139/80-89 Stage 1 - 140-159/90-99 Stage 2 - 160+/100+
Myocardial Infarction (MI) - Description AKA heart attack; Blood flow through 1+ coronary arteries is reduced or stopped; irreversible necrosis to that portion of the myocardium
Myocardial Infarction (MI) - Etiology Ruptured atherosclerotic plaque or blood clot blocks blood flow through coronary artery; spasm of coronary artery (uncommon)
Myocardial Infarction (MI) - S/S chest discomfort and pressure, squeezing or pain; shortness of breath; discomfort in upper body (arms, shoulders, neck or back); nausea; vomiting; dizziness; sweating; palpitations
Myocardial Infarction (MI) - Treatment Medication and surgery depending on amount of damage/severity; anticoagulants, thrompolitics, antiHTN, cholesterol lowering, pain killers; angioplasty, stenting, bypass; lifestyle changes
Peripheral Artery Disease - Description Stenotic (abnormal narrowing), occlusive (blockage), and aneurysmal (permanent dilation) diseases of aorta and peripheral arteries
Peripheral Artery Disease - Etiology atherosclerosis; thrombo-embolic processes that affect the structure/function of aorta and it's branches
Peripheral Artery Disease - S/S fatigue, aching, numbness or pain in LE at rest or walking; poorly healing wounds of LE; distal hair loss; trophic skin changes; hypertrophic nails; intermittent claudication
Peripheral Artery Disease - Treatment Asymptomatic - stop smoking, lipid lowering meds, beta blockers, control of diabetes and HTN; supervised exercise 30-45 minutes 3+/week for 12 weeks
Intermittent Claudication - Description and Tx LE pain associated with peripheral artery disease causing disability; revascularization procedures (stenting, lasers, etc), surgery (bypasses), regular supervised exercise
Valvular Heart Disease - Description Damaged heart valve causes blood regurgitation (insufficiency/incompetence) - leaflets weaken and blood leaks backward; or stenosis - leaflets thicken, stiffen or fuse and won't move enough to allow blood through
Valvular Heart Disease - Etiology congenital defects; calcific degeneration; infective endocarditis; CAD; MI; rheumatic fever
Valvular Heart Disease - S/S Varies but may include - heart palpitations, shortness of breath, chest pain, coughing, ankle swelling, fatigue
Valvular Heart Disease - Treatment Medications to reduce workload of heart, regulate heart rhythm and prevent clotting - digitalis, diuretics; anti-platelet, anticoagulants, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers; severe - surgery to repair or balloon valve
Created by: ashleighobrien
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