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PTA Pulmonary

Pulmonary Anatomy and Physiology

QuestionAnswer
What is the thorax? Encloses and protects the heart, lungs, and other organs and provides attachment sites for ventilatory and other muscles. Bound posteriorly by 12 thoracic vertebrae, intervertebral disks, and ribs; anteriorly by the sternum, costal cartilages and ribs
Describe the sternum. Consists of manubrium, body, and xyphoid process
Describe the ribs. Most of the bony thorax is formed by the 12 pairs of ribs. 1-7 are true ribs that attach to sternum via costal cartilages; 8-10 are false ribs and attach to cartilage of rib above; ribs 11-12 are floating ribs
What are the principles muscles for inspiration? Diaphragm, external intercostals, and internal intercostals
What are the muscles of exhalation? Quiet breathing: passive recoil of lungs and rib cage Forceful breathing: rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transverse abdominis
What are the components of the upper respiratory tract? Nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx; they serve as gas conduits, humidifiers, cool or warm inspired air, and filter foreign matter before it reaches the alveoli
What are the components of the lower respiratory tract? From the larynx to the alveoli; consists of the conducting airways and terminal respiratory units; trachea
What is the mediastinum? Separates the R and L lungs
How many lobes are in the right lung? 3; upper, middle and lower
How many lobes are in the left lung? 2; upper and lower
What are the bronchopulmonary segments? Topographic units; 10 in the right lung; 8 in the left
Describe the bronchus. R - main bronchus gives rise to superior, middle, and inferior lobar bronchi L - main bronchus gives rise to superior and inferior bronchi
Describe the alveolar-capillary units. Oxygen diffuses across alveolar-capillary septum where it binds with hemoglobin; carbon dioxide diffuses in the opposite direction
Describe the pleurae. Membranous serous sac covering each lung; it allows for smooth gliding of the tissue surfaces during lung expansion and deflation
What is pneumothorax? air between/beneath the pleura
What is hemothorax? blood between/beneath the pleura
What is pulmonary circulation? Carries deoxygenated blood through pulmonary arteries to lungs and oxygenated blood through pulmonary veins back to the heart
What is bronchial circulation? Supplies oxygenated blood to the bronchi and connective tissue in lungs via bronchial arteries and drain directly into bronchial veins.
Describe breath control. Integrated activity of: central respiratory center in the brain stem, peripheral receptors in the in the lungs, airways, chest wall and blood vessels. Chemo and Mechano receptors in the chest wall stim respiratory mm's
Describe oxygen diffusion. Physically dissolves in blood plasma AND combines with hemoglobin.
Describe carbon dioxide diffusion. 5-10% Dissolves in blood; 5-10% is carbamino compounds; 80-90% transported as bicarbonate ions
What is anatomic dead space volume? The volume of air that occupies the non-respiratory conducting airways. (VD)
What is expiratory reserve volume? (ERV) The max volume of air that can be exhaled after a normal tidal exhalation. ~15% of total lung volume
What is forced vital capacity? (FVC) The volume of air expired during a forced max expiration after a forced max inspiration.
What is functional residual capacity? (FRC) The volume of air in the lungs after normal exhalation. FRC=ERV+RV; ~40% of total lung volume.
What is inspiratory capacity? (IC) The max volume of air that can be inspired after a normal exhalation; IC=TV+IRV; ~50% of total lung volume
What is minute volume ventilation? (VE) The volume of air expired in 1 minute. VE=TVx respiratory rate
What is peak expiratory flow? (PEF) The max flow of air during the beginning of a forced expiratory maneuver
What is Residual volume? (RV) The volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of max expiration; ~25% of total lung volume
What is tidal volume? (TV) Total volume inspired and expired with each breath during quiet breathing; ~10% of total lung volume
What is total lung capacity? (TLC) The volume of air in the lungs after max inspiration; the sum of all lung volumes; TLC=RV+VC OR TLC=FRC+IC
What is vital capacity? (VC) The volume change that occurs between max inspiration and max expiration; VC=TV+IRV+ERV; ~75% of total lung volume
Created by: ashleighobrien