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PTA Cardio

Cardiac System Anatomy and Physiology

What is the Apex of the heart? The lowest part of the heart formed by the inferolateral part of the left ventricle.
What is the Base of the heart? The upper border of the heart involving the left atrium, part of the right atrium, and the proximal portions of the great vessels.
What is the endocardium? The endothelial tissue that lines the interior of the heart chambers and valves.
What is the epicardium? The serous layer of the pericardium. Contains the epicardial coronary arteries and veins, autonomic nerves and lymphatics.
What is the myocardium? The thick contractile layer of muscle cells that forms the bulk of the heart walls.
What is the pericardium? A double walled connective tissue sac that surrounds the outside of the heart and great vessels.
What is the aorta? The body's largest artery. The central conduit of blood from the heart to the body. Goes from upper left ventricle through the thorax and into the abdomen.
What is the superior vena cava? The vein that returns blood from the head, neck and arms to the right atria.
What is the inferior vena cava? The vein that returns blood from the lower body and viscera to the right atrium.
What are the pulmonary arteries? The arteries that carry de-oxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.
What are pulmonary veins? The veins that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
What are the chambers of the heart? Right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, left ventricle
What is the atrial septum? The wall between the atria.
What is the ventricular septum? The wall between the ventricles.
What is the basic function of the heart chambers? The right chambers collect blood from the body and pump it into the lungs. The left chambers collect blood from the lungs and pump it to the rest of the body.
What are the valves of the heart? Atrioventricular valves: right - Tricuspid (3 leaflets), left - mitral (2 leaflets) Aortic valve and pulmonary valve
What does the Tricuspid valve do? Controls blood flow between the right atria and right ventricle.
What does the mitral valve do? Control blood flow between the left atria and the left ventricle.
What does the aortic valve do? Controls blood flow between the left ventricle and the aorta.
What does the pulmonary valve do? Controls blood flow between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
Describe blood flow to and from the heart. SVC and IVC to RA, through TCV to RV, through PV, through pulm arteries, to lungs/capillaries, through pulm veins, to LA, through MV, to LV, through AV, to aorta and body
What is the function of the coronary arteries? To carry oxygenated blood to the myocardium.
Describe the anatomy of the coronary arteries. A network of progressively smaller vessels. R and L CA's arise from ascending aorta near LV.
What is the function of the cardiac veins? To carry de-oxygenated blood to the R atria and ventricle.
What are the components of the Cardiac veins and their functions? Great, middle and small cardiac veins - drain into coronary sinus and into the RA. Thebesian veins - drain into all chambers but mostly RA and RV
What is the cardiac conduction system? Automaticity of the electrical impulses that cause the myocardium to contract.
What are the components of the conduction system? Sinoatrial node (SA), Atrioventricular node (AV), Cardio myocyte, Bundle of his, Bundle branches, Purkinji fibers
Describe innervation of the heart. Each cardiac myocyte has the intrinsic ability to depolarize and propagate electrical impulses without nervous innervation. Heart rate, rhythm and contractility are also influenced by SNS and PSNS.
How does the SNS affect the heart? Release of epinephrine and norepinephrine increases HR and force of contraction.
How does the PSNS affect the heart? Acetylcholine is released by the vagus nerve to influence the SA node and slow the HR.
What is the baroreceptor reflex? Mechanoreceptors detect changes in pressure. The reflexes by witch BP is maintained.
What is the SNS affect on the baroreflex? Increased cardiac contractility, HR, venous and arterial constriction. Leads to increased BP, peripheral resistance and cardiac output.
What is the PSNS affect on the baroreflex? Decrease in HR, small decrease in contractility, and decreased BP.
What is the bainbridge reflex? Venous return stretches receptors in RA. Sends vagal signal to medulla to inhibit PSNS, results in increased HR.
What is the chemoreceptor reflex? Chemosensitive cells located int the carotid bodies and the aortic body respond to changes in pH status and blood oxygen tension.
What is the Valsalva's maneuver? forced expiration against closed glottis (holding breath with intrathoracic pressure); increased venous pressure, decreased venous return; decreased cardiac output and BP; increases HR and contractility; pt can faint
What is the cardiac cycle? The sequence of events that occur when the heart beats. Atrial systole, atrial diastole, ventricular systole, ventricular diastole, preload, after load, stroke volume, cardiac out put and venous return.
What is atrial systole? Contraction of the R and L atria pushing blood into the ventricles.
What is atrial diastole? Period between atrial contraction when the atria are repolarizing.
What is ventricular systole? Contraction of the R and L ventricles pushing blood into the pulmonary arteries and aorta.
What is preload? Tension in the ventricular wall at the end of diastole. Reflects venous filling pressure that fills the left ventricle during diastole.
What is afterload? Forces the impede the flow of blood out of the heart, pressure in the peripheral vasculature, compliance of the aorta, the mass and the viscosity of the blood.
What is stroke volume (SV)? Volume of blood ejected with each contraction of the L ventrice. Normal - 60-80ml; depends on age, sex and activity.
What is cardiac output (CO)? The amount of blood pumped from the L and R ventricles per minute. SV xHR; Normal for males at rest is 4.5-5 L/min and slightly less for females. can increase up to 25 L/min with exercise.
What is venous return? The amount of blood the returns to the R atrium each minute. Similar to CO because it is a closed loop.
Describe system circulation. Carries oxygenated blood from the L ventricle through the aorta, arteries, arterioles to capillaries in the tissues. From capillaries, deoxygenated blood returns via venules, veins and inferior/superior vena cava.
What is the function of blood? Transports oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the body and returns waste products of these cells to excretory systems. Normal volume is 4.5-5 L for men and slightly less for women.
What are the components of blood? Plasma, red blood cells, blood platelets, white blood cells: neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils
What is plasma? Liquid portion of blood in which platelets and cells are suspended. consists of water, electrolytes and protein, Accounts for more than half of total blood volume. Aides in regulation of BP and temp.
What are red blood cells? AKA erythrocyte; 40% of blood volume; Contains hemoglobin witch gives it red color and allows binding with oxygen
What are blood platelets? AKA thrombocytes; assist in blood clotting by binding together and forming a plug to seal a vessel
What are white blood cells? AKA leukocytes; protect against infection; 5 types: neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils
What is a neutrophil? A WBC that helps protect the body against infections by ingesting bacteria and debris.
What is a lymphocyte? A WBC; 3 types: (1)T lymphocytes and (2)natural killer cells which help protect against viral infection and can detect/destroy cancer cells; (3)B lymphocytes which develop into cells that produce antibodies
What is a monocyte? A WBC that ingests dead and damaged cells and helps defend against infectious organisms.
What is thrombocytopenia? A low number of platelets; increases risk of bruising and abnormal bleeding
What is thrombocythemia? A high number of platelets; increases risk of thrombosis, stroke and heart attack
What is anemia? The number of RBC's is too low; the blood carries less oxygen, resulting in fatigue or weakness
What is polycythemia? The number of RBC's is too high; the blood is too thick, increasing risk of heart attack and stroke
What is leukopenia? A low number of WBC's that increases risk of infection.
What is leukocytosis? An abnormally high number of WBC's can indicate an infection or leukemia
Created by: ashleighobrien



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