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Anatomy Knee

The Knee "Greathouse"

QuestionAnswer
Which femoral condyle is longer? medial
Which joint in the knee has the thickest articular cartilage in the body? patellofemoral
What position has the most stability and is generally avoided during joint testing? closed-packed position
What position results in less stability, is the best joint to test the ligaments of a joint, and decreases congruency? loose-packed position(same as open-packed...I think)
What is the largest joint in the body? the knee
Which ligament in the knee attaches anteriorly on the tibia and proceeds to the medial portion of the lateral femoral condyle. ACL
Which ligament is the major stabilizer of the knee? PCL
Which ligament limits the anterior translation of the tibia on the femur? ACL
Which ligament attaches posteriorly on the tibia and proceeds to the lateral portion of the medial femoral condyle? PCL
Which ligament limits posterior translation of the tibia on the femur? PCL
This ligament is actually part of the IT band and its fibers extend from the linea aspera of the femoral condyle to gerdy's tubercle. the anterolateral femorotibial ligament
The deep portions of this ligament provide passive stabilization of the knee joint and tightens with knee flexion. the anterolateral femorotibial ligament
A fibrocartilagenous structure anchored by anterior and posterior horns to the intercondyler eminence is called what? Meniscus
This meniscus is less mobile, attached to the MCL, and c-shaped Medial meniscus
This meniscus is more mobile and circular shaped. Lateral Meniscus
What are the functions of the menisci?(3) increase congruence, shock absorption, and spreads synovial fluid
Anatomic studies have shown that the degree of penetration of vascularization is __-__% of the width of the medial meniscus and __-__% of the width of the lateral meniscus. 10-30%, 10-25%
T or F. There are no neural elements within the meniscal tissue. False. nerve fibers have been detected in the peripheral body, and the anterior and posterior horns are the most richly innervated.
What type of motion can cause a meniscal tear? non-physiologic combo of rotation and forced flexion or extension
IS there pain associated with a meniscal tear? Why/ yes, menisci are penetrated by nerves
What part of the menisci are vascular? mainly the periphery
Is there typically bleeding with a meniscal tear? How does this affect healing? no, little healing due to lack of blood
How do you diagnose OA in the clinic?(three things) history, physical, and radiological exam
What are the functions of the patellofemoral joint?(4 things) 1. facilitates extension of the knee, 2.Decreases friction of the quadriceps mechanism, 3.acts as a guide for the quads, 4.protects the trochlea and femoral condyles
The patellofemoral joint increases the torque by as much as __%. 50%
The ______ part of the patella is articular and accounts for 75% of the height. superior
What is the largest facet on the patella?(medial or lateral) lateal
What are the two sections of the medial portion of the patella? medial and odd facets
Is the inferior part of the patella articular? no
The odd facet of the patella is engaged at approximately ___ degrees. 135
What muscle "unlocks" the knee? popliteus
What kinetic chain is used to protect ligaments like the cruciates in early rehabilitation? closed kinetic chain
What kinetic chain involves both ends being fixed? closed kinetic chain
What kinetic chain involves the feet being free to move? open kinetic chain
Which kinetic chain results in much greater shear forces of the tibia on the femur? open kinetic chain
___ side of the femur sits on the tibia like a wheel on a plate, while the ___side sits like a wheel on a dome. medial; lateral
For the screw home mechanism of the knee, the tibia ___ with ext and ___ with flex. ER; IR
Which side of the femur reaches closed pack position first with extension? lateral
What is the order of the mm's attaching to the pes anserine?(from most to least superficial) Sartorious, Gracilis, Semitendinosus
What position (open or closed-packed) is more commonly used for ligamentous assessment? Open-packed
What should always be assessed with disarticulated knee? Distal blood supply (dorsal pedis, post tib pulse) and sensation
Is the joint capsule a closed sleeve (in other words is it closed off from other tendons and joints crossing through it)? No, openings for the popliteus tendon and quadriceps tendon
Name 4 structures within the knee that are intracapsular, but extrasynovial. ACL, PCL, popliteus mm, infrapatellar fat pad
What would one expect with menisectomy..years down the road? Almost always have DJD +10 years post-op.
Name the bursa of the patella suprapatellar, subcutaneous prepatellar, subcutaneous infrapatellar, deep infrapatellar
knee AROM? 0-135 degrees
What are the lateral forces of the patellofemoral jt? q angle, lateral retinaculum, screw-home mechanism
What are the medial forces of the patellofemoral jt? lateral trochlea, resistance of the medial reinaculum, perpendicular resultant forces due to quad pull, vastus medialis mm
What branches from the femoral artery medially just before the adductor hiatus? Descending genicular artery which branches into the Saphenous branch(medially) and articular branch (laterally)
Name the branches from the popliteal artery that form around the knee. medial superior genicular, lateral superior genicular, medial inferior genicular, lateral inferior genicular, unpaired middle genicular branch
What supplies blood to the intercondylar notch and cruciate ligs? unpaired middle genicular branch
What is Hilton's law? nerves that innervate jts are the same for the muscles of the jt and skin of the jt
Name the muscles that border the popliteal fossa. biceps femoris, semimembranosus, gastrocs (med and lat head)
Name the contents of the popliteal fossa. sciatic nerve (c. fib and tibial branches0, sural nerve, small saphenous v., post cutaneous n to thigh
What nerve is the chief supplier to the flexors of the knee? tibial
what makes up the floor of the popliteal fossa? the oblique popliteal ligament, popliteus, popliteal surface of femur
Is the joint capsule of the knee a completely closed sleeve? no
There are openings in the knee joint capsule for what two things? popliteus tendon, and quadriceps tendon
What lines the capsule and and covers all the intraarticular structures except the menisci? the synovial membrane
What three things are considered intracapsular but extrasynovial? cruciate ligaments, popliteus muscle, and infrapatellar fat pad.
What is the ligament of humphrey? the anterior meniscofemoral ligament
What is the ligament of wrisberg? posterior meniscofemoral ligament
What ligaments are portions of the capsule that attach to the medial and lateral mensicus? coronary ligaments
Created by: txst sum 2009