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Semester Study Guide

dike a large barrier built to keep out water
polder the land reclaimed from building dikes and then draining the water from the land
estuary an area where the river currents and the ocean tide meet
feudalism the political and social system in which kings gave land to nobles in exchange for the nobles’ promise to serve them; those nobles provided military service as knights for the king
middle ages a time of transition between ancient times and modern times
parliament the national legislature of England
glaciation the process of becoming covered by glaciers
fjord a narrow, u-shaped coastal valley with steep sides formed by the action of glaciers
tundra a flat, treeless plain with permanently frozen ground
scrubland land that is dry and hot in the summer and cool and wet in the winter; only small trees and shrubs can survive there
city-state an independent political unit that includes a city and the surrounding area
longships a ship with oars and sails used by Vikings
pagan someone who believes in more than one god or has little/no religious belief
renaissance a period of rapid growth and development in literature and science after the Middle Ages
homogenous alike or the same throughout
tsunami a giant ocean wave that is caused by earthquakes
archipelago a group of islands
dynasty a line of rulers from a single family that holds power for a long time
samurai a powerful land-owning warrior in ancient Japan
shogun a military leader who ruled Japan in early times
delta an area where sand, silt, clay, or gravel is dropped at the mouth of a river (triangle shape)
silt small particles of rich soil
wadis a dry riverbed that fills with water when rare rains fall in a desert
ergs a large area of sand
nomad a person who lives by moving from place to place to follow and hunt herds of migrating animals or to lead herds of grazing animals to fresh pastures
aquifer an underground layer of rock through which water flows
pharaoh Egyptian king, had religious significance, considered descended from gods
hieroglyphics the system of writing that uses small pictures to represent sounds or words
monotheism belief in and worship of only one god
caliph the successor to Muhammad (islamic rulers)
civil war
coral reef
hot springs
introduced species
action songs
geothermal energy
continental island
high island
Created by: thetharp