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psychology

Gender

QuestionAnswer
the biological differences between males and females including chromosomes , hormones and anatomy Sex
the psychological and cultural differences between men and women including attitudes, behaviours and social roles Gender
a set of beliefs and preconceived ideas about what is appropriate for males and females in a given society Sex role stereotypes
when someones biological sex does not reflect the way they feel inside and the gender they identify as being Gender Identity disorder
Androgyny displaying a balance of feminine and masculine characteristics in ones personality
the first systematic attempt of measuring androgyny using a ratings scale of 60 questions to provide a score across two dimensions Bems sex role inventory
what are the two dimensions in bems sex role inventory androgyny-indifference and masculinity-femininity
what was the division of masculine and feminine traits in BSRI 20 masculine, 20 feminine and 20 neutral
weakness of Bems sex role inventory criticised for trying to oversimplify something which is complex. gender identity is too complex to be reduces to a single score
the role of chromosomes in sex and gender initially determine someones biological sex
the role of hormones in sex and gender act upon brain developmemt and cause development of reproductive organs, active prenatally and througout puberty
3 examples of hormones oestrogen, oxytocin and testosterone
a hormone from the androgen group which is mainly produced in the male testes and is associated with aggresiveness Testosterone
the primary female hormone which plays an important role in the menstrual cycle and reproductive system oestrogen
a hormone which during childbirth causes the contraction of the uterus and stimulates lactation Oxytocin
Any sex chromosome patterbn whcih deviated from the usual xx/xy pattern and which tends to be associated with a distict pattern of psychological and physiological symptoms atypical sex chromosome patterns
identify two sydromes caused by atypical sex chromosome patterns Klinefelters syndrome syndrome and turners syndrome
a syndrome affecting males in which the individual possesses an extra Y chromosome . characteristics include tall thin physique, enlarged breasts and small infertile testes Klinefelters syndrome
Turners syndrome a chromosomal disorder in which chromosomal women only have one x chromosome causing developmental abnormality's and infertility
A weakness of the genetic explanation for difference in behaviour of atypical chromosome sufferers the link between chromosomes and behaviour is only casual this means there may actually be environmental factors affecting behaviours
Kohlberg's three stages of development gender identity, gender stability and gender constancy
Gender identity acquired around the age of 2 , children are able to correctly identify themselves as a boy or a girl (at age 3 they are able to correctly identify others genders)
gender stability acquired around the age of four , it is the realisation that our own gender will say the same over time. this knowledge doesn't apply to others though as children ca n become confused by appearance.
gender constancy acquired around the age of 6 , children understand that everybody's gender remains consistent over time. they are no longer confused by appearances
a weakness of gender constancy manystudies have observed children displaying gender appropriate behaviour before gender constancy has been achieved.
according to Kohlberg what else occurs at the gender constancy stage children start to seek out gender appropriate roles models to imitate
Gender Schema an organised set of beliefs and expectations about gender which come about through experience. These experiences guide a persons understanding of their own gender and gender appropriate roles in general.
came up with gender schema theory Martin and Halverson
The shared view of Kohlberg's stages of development and gender schema theory children develop their own understanding of gender by actively structuring their learning rather than passively imitating role models
in group and out group idea within gender schema theory children have a much better understanding of schema within their own gender this goes along with the idea that they also pay less attention to info about the oppsite sex.
main idea of gender schema theory once the child has achieved gender identity (2-3 years old) they will begin to look in their environment for information which encourages further development of gender schema. this contrasts with Kohlberg who says this occurs after gender constancy (7 )
evidential support for gender schema theory Martin and Halverson's own study found children were more likely to remember photos of gender-consistent behaviour rather than gender-inconsistent photos. they changed the gender to fit the role. supports idea of distorted memory to fit schemas
the psychodynamic explanation of gender development Freud's psychoanalytic theory
when does Freud think gender identity occurs In the phallic stage (ages 3-6)
Oedipus Complex Freud's explanation of how a boy resolves his love for his mother and feelings of rivalry toward his father by identifying with the father
A term proposed by neofreudian carl jung which refers to a process similar to the Oedipus complex but in girls. the girls resolve envy for and attraction to the father by identifying the mother The Electra Complex the a
a desire to be associated with a certain person or group often as they have certain desirable traits Identification
the limited evidence study which Freud used as evidence for the Oedipus complex Little Hans
limitation of freuds Oedipus theory he admitted girls were a mystery to him and was criticized for his idea of penis envy as it reflected the patriarchal Victorian era he lived in
direct reinforcement in gender development children are likely to be criticized or praised for gender appropriate behaviour. e.g. boys rough and tumble girls gentleness.
differential reinforcement the way in which boys and girls are encouraged to show distinct gender appropriate behaviour
in direct reinforcement in gender development if a little girls sees her ,other get complimented for wearing a dress and make up she may imitate her
the four mediational processes Attention, retention, reproduction and motivation
supporting eveidence for social learning theory in gender development smith and Lloyd 1978 dressed babies half the time in boys clothes and half in girls then observed adults reactions eg givin them gender appropriate toys
a set of behaviours and attitudes which are deemed appropriate for one gender and inappropriate for the other Gender Roles
cultural differences in gender roles study Margerat Mead (1975) looked at different gender roles in tribal groups on the island of new guinea.
Margaret mead found The Arapesh to be ...... gentle and responsive (similar to western stereotype of femininity)
Margaret Mead found The Mundugumore to be ..... Hostile and aggressive (similar to western stereotype of masculinity)
Margaret Mead found the tchambui ...... women were in charge of the village life and diominant, men were decorative and passive
main finding of Margerat Mead there may not be a direct biological relationship between sex and gender and that gender roles may be culturally determined
who investigated gender role similarity between cultures david buss (1995) found similar mate preferances between 37 countries
there is evidence to show that children who are exposed to more popular forms of media tend to show more gender-stereotypical views in their behaviour and attitudes McGhee and frueh (1980)
criticism of Mead she didn't separate her own oppinions from her description of samoan life (obserever bias)
biological explanations for gender identity disorder brain sex theory and genetics
brain sex theory specific brain structure which are incompatible with a persons biological sex e.g. the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis
social psychological explanations for GID psychoanalytic theory and cognitive explanations
psychoanalytic theory of gender identity disorder ovesy and person (1973)argued that GID in males is caused by the child experiencing extreme seperation anaxiety before their gender identity has been established. they end up adopting a very close relationship with the mother almost becoming them.
Created by: Madz99