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Memory AS


2 factors that affect accuracy of eyewitness testimony Anxiety and Misleading information
2 types of misleading information Leading questions and post-event discussion
2 ways post-event discussion can contaminate recall of an event Conformity effect and Repeat interviewing
3 stages of eyewitness memory 1. encoding details of event into LTM (may be partial or distorted). 2. Witness retains information for a period (memories may be lost or modified). 3. Witness retrieves memory form storage (retrieval cues/nature of questions can affect recall accuracy )
What is a leading question? a question that suggests to the witness what answer is desired or leads them to the desired answer.
Evaluation points for misleading information 1. Considerable supporting evidence to show it can create inaccurate memories. 2. But Loftus lab experiment may not represent real life(less emotional arousal). 3. Real-world applications, DNA evidence has led to judgements based on EWT to be overturned.
What is the argument around the effect of anxiety/stress on EWT? Has a negative effect on memory and performance on cognitive tasks or high anxiety/arousal creates more enduring and accurate memories.
Define capacity How much data can be held in a memory store. Represented in terms of bits of information such as digits.
Describe STM capacity and LTM capacity STM Limited and LTM potentially infinite
How can STM capacity be assessed? What did Miller find? Assessed by using digit span (how many numbers could be recalled). Miller found immediate memory span to be + or -7 (5-9). Found same for words and letters due to chunking.
Evaluation of Miller's findings on STM capacity 1.Later studies suggest more limited - about 4 chunks. 2. Size of chunk does matter (shorter memory for phrases than short words). 3. There are individual differences and this is affected by age.
Define duration A measure of how long a memory lasts before it is no longer available.
Describe STM duration and LTM duration LTM memory for past events, potentially lasts a lifetime. Tends to be coded SEMANTICALLY. STM (immediate events/working memory) tends to be measured in seconds and minutes. Disappear unless rehearsed (repeated over and over again).
How was duration of STM tested? Peterson and Peterson - participants given a consonant syllable and a 3 digit number e.g. THX512. Had to recall syllable after different retention intervals. During this process they had to count backwards form 3 digit number.
What did Peterson and Peterson find? 90% correct over 3 seconds, but only 20% correct over 9 seconds and 2% after 18 seconds. Suggests STM duration very short (18 seconds) WHEN verbal rehearsal is prevented.
Evaluate Peterson and Peterson's investigation. Testing was artificial, lacks ecological validity as does not reflect everyday memory activities where what we are trying to remember is usually MEANINGFUL. Does have some relevance though as we have to remember groups of letters for e.g. postcodes.
How was duration of LTM tested? Bahrick tested memory of class mates.Photo-recognition test of classmates-90% accurate 15 years after graduation. 78% 48 years after graduation.
Define coding (encoding) The way information is changed so that it can be stored in memory. information enters the brain through the senses. It is then stored in different forms e.g. visual codes (picture), acoustic codes (sounds) or semantic codes (meaning).
Who tested acoustic and semantic coding and how?
What did Baddeley find about acoustic and semantic coding? Participants had difficulty remembering ACOUSTICALLY similar words in STM but NOT LTM . Other way for semantically similar words (not difficult in STM but muddled in LTM). Suggests STM mostly encodes acoustically and LTM mostly encodes semantically.
Evaluation points on coding studies 1. Baddeley tested LTM by waiting 20 minutes before recall - may not really be testing LTM. 2. Research suggests STM may not be exclusively acoustic (evidence of visual cues) and 3. LTM may not be exclusively semantic-can vary according to circumstances