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Special topic 2017

Principals and applications of robotic control in motor vehicle manufacture

QuestionAnswer
Who first patented robotic control and in what year did he do this? Robotic control was first patented in 1954 by American inventor George Devol
What was the name of the world's first industrial robot and in what year was it created? In 1959, The Unimate #001 was installed in General Motors die cast plant in New Jersey with immediate success
What kind of automated processes can industrial robots do in connection with car manufacturing Car manufacturers are turning to robots as an automated process for spot, arc and laser welding, painting, assembly, die-casting and large part transfer
What is a robot? A robot is a mechanical device that is capable of carrying out a series of actions automatically. They are designed to move materials, parts and tools and programmed to perform a variety of tasks in industrial automation.
What are the two main groups that industrial robots can be categorized into? Manipulators and Teleoporators
Describe the type of robot that can be classes as a manipulator Manipulators are pick and place style robots. They usually have clamps or pinchers mounted on the end of the robot arm that are controlled pneumatically or driven by small electric motors. They are fully autonomous
Describe the type of robot that can be classes as a teleoperator Teleoperation indicates operation of a machine at a distance. Teleoperators are used for hazardous operations such as deep sea work with oil and gas, keyhole surgery using medical robots and handling of radioactive materials in nuclear power plants.
How many axes does a robot need to achieve complete freedom of orientation and position, can you name these axes 6 axes are needed. 1st Axis: Base twisting, 2nd Axis: Base bowing, 3rd Axis: Forearm flapping, 4th Axis: Forearm twisting, 5th Axis: Wrist flapping, 6th Axis: Wrist twisting
Robot manufactures have developed many different configurations and mechanical designs of robots to enhance processes in industrial automation. Name 3 of the main configurations. Articulated Arm Configuration, Gantry Configuration, SCARA Configuration
Describe the Articulated Arm Configuration This design has multiple joints on arm members that have rotary movement, which gives the robot up to 6 axis of movement. This style of robot is ideal for precision tasks in the automotive industry such as welding, assembly and painting.
Describe the Gantry Configuration The gantry configuration moves in 3 directions in translation of right angles to each other. They are generally rigid and can carry heavy load with great precision. They are used for moving large components such as engines throughout the production line.
Describe the SCARA Configuration Due to their high precision these robots are designed for detailed assembly tasks and pre drilling of mounting panels. They have a repeatability better than 0.025mm. They can operate at very fast speeds.
What is meant by the term repeatability? Repeatability is the ability of a robot to return to the same position acurately and is an important element of robotic performance.
What is meant by the term 'working envelope' of a robot? The working envelope defines the points that can be reached by the robot. Besides the work envelope showing the limitations of the robot it is also there to avoid collisions with other robots or equipment on the process line.
Why do most robots use AC motors to drive each of these axes? This is due to their high torque and reduction in size compared to a DC motor. Added to this, the AC motor can be considered as maintenance free as it does not require brushes, is self-cooling and is completely enclosed.
Name three mechanisms that a motor can be connected to, to create movement in a robot axis Lead Screws, Gear Drives, Belt Drives
Describe where a lead screw could be used on an industrial robot. Lead screws can be found on the lathe or milling machine table. They are generally used on one or more axes of gantry configuration robots. The main benefit of using this style of drive mechanism is its high precision.
Describe where a gear drive could be used on an industrial robot. It is not uncommon to have robot arms driven by a gear mechanism. They are mainly used in robots where precision isn’t necessary. The main problem when using gears is backlash.
What is meant by backlash? Backlash occurs between mating gears. It is the result of clearance needed between the gear teeth to keep the drive from locking up. Unfortunately gears have poor repeatability due to the accumulation of the small gaps between the teeth of mating gears.
Describe where a belt drive could be used on an industrial robot. The most common drive mechanism on robots is belt drives. Belt drives use toothed belts, driven by pulleys to transmit energy for an AC motor to the robot arm. The have the advantage over lead screws and gear drives of lower costs and greater flexibility.
explain how industrial robots can be taught movement patterns using the 'Lead by Nose' method You physically guide the robot through the actions needed to perform the operation. These taught positions are then stored in the robots memory and played back to perform the task during production. This method of programming is also known as walk
explain how industrial robots can be taught movement patterns using the Teach Pendant The most common method of programming robots. It either has push buttons or a joystick to control the robots movements. You move the robot to create the desired path needed for a specific operation. The path can be repeated by replaying the sequence.
explain how industrial robots can be taught movement patterns using Off-line programming Off –line programming techniques use 3D software to graphically simulate the robots movements around a cell or manufacturing line. The main advantage is that both the programmer and robot are not at risk of collision due to an operational error.
What are the Potential Benefits of Robots in Motor Vehicle Manufacture The main benefit is a reduction in the cost of labour. Other are energy savings, efficiency, untiring performance which saves valuable time, exact consistent movement, less material is wasted.
What is meant by sensitive robotics? Previously robots were enclosed by safety fences and guarding to keep the operator safe from potential collisions. Now, a new era of sensitive robotics has dawned allowing humans to work on complex tasks hand in hand with robots.
What is meant by the fourth industrial revolution involving 'Smart Factories'? Smart factories will have more efficient manufacturing methods that saves resources. These factories can adapt to the production process in real time. Example amazon using robots to retrieve orders from warehouse and drones to deliver package.
What are the main advantages of using industrial robots in car manufacturing? Quality: precision and high repeatability. Production: Speed and no need for breaks. Safety: accidents unlikely, can work with hazardous materials. Savings: labour costs, insurance, health care
What are the main disadvantages of using industrial robots in car manufacturing? High initial investment costs, Specialist engineers needed to programme and maintain the robots, humans must stay at a safe distance, less jobs for humans
What does SCARA stand for? The term Scara stands for Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm. It is a combination of the cylindrical and revolute configurations operating in the horizontal plane.
Created by: todd.ciaran