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Theatre Exam 3

CH 11-16 Theatre the Lively Art - Wilson/ Goldfarb

This impulse is universal among humans the impulse to create theatre
western theatre began with ... Greek and Roman theatre, then after a hiatus of many centuries, continued with midieval theatre
early Greek theatre is well known for tragedies by these three. Also considered to be the 3 great dramatists of the period. Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides
choregus equivalent of modern day producer; wealthy person who financed a playwright's works at an ancient Greek dramatic festival
chorus, in ancient Greek drama a group of performers who sang and danced, sometimes participating in the action but usually simply commenting on it.
chorus, in modern times performers in a musical play who sing and dance as a group
Thespian synonym for "performer"; from Thespis.
Thespis said to have been the first actor in ancient Greek theatre.
City of Dionysia The most important Greek festival in honor of the god Dionysus, and the first to include the drama. 7 day festival of comedy
Aeschylus (525-456 B.C.E.), considered 1st important Greek dramatist & the 1st important Western dramatist. Master of trilogy. Chorus from 50 to 12 & added 2nd actor. "Oresteia"
trilogy in classical Greece, 3 tragedies written by same playwright & presented on a single day; they were connected by a story or thematic concerns.
Sophocles (496-406 B.C.E.) 2nd most important; built on the dramatic form that Aeschylus began. Chorus from 12 to 15 and actors from 2 to 3. "Oedipis Rex" and "Oedipus the King"
Euripides (484-406 B.C.E.), 3rd most important,; rebel & most modern of the 3. sympathetic portrayal of women, increased realism, tragedy/ melodrama/ comedy/ skeptical treatment of gods. "Medea"
King Oedipus 430 B.C.E; Climactic structure; play by Sophocles.Prophesied that he will kill his father and marry his mother - happened, then put out his eyes. Most famous Greek tragedy.
Amphitheatre Large oval, circular, or semicircular outdoor theatre with rising tiers of seats around an open playing area. Or exceptionally large indoor auditorium.
Orchestra, ancient Greek theatres circular playing space
Orchestra, modern times ground-floor seating in a theatre auditorium
parodos in classical Greek drama, the scene in which the chorus enters; or entranceway for chorus in Greek theatre.
theatron where the audience sat in an ancient Greek theatre
Greek mechane crane used for flying in actors
Greek skene platform on wheels used to bring out characters from inside building
Aristotle 1st significant of the poetics; (384-322 B.C.E.); Greek philosopher like Socrates and Plato; 6 elements of drama. Wrote the Poetics
Aristotle's 6 elements of drama 1)plot, 2)character, 3)thought or theme, 4)language, 5)music, 6) spectacle
Greeks noted for... creativity and imagination
Romans noted for... practical achievements: law, engineering, & military conquest
works of these 3 playwrights survived in Roman theatre Comedies of Plautus & Terence, and tragedies of Seneca
Plautus (254-184 B.C.E.); Roman - dealt exclusively w/ domestic situations, particularly trials & tribulations of romance. Farces. "The Menaechmi" Mostly sung
Terence -After Plautus (185-159 B.C.E.). More literary style/ less exaggerated. "Phormio". Mostly spoken.
Seneca most notable tragic dramatist. (4 B.C.E.-65 C.E.), similar to Greek tragedies, but distinct. Chorus not integral. Influenced Shakesphere. "Hamlet"
Christianity Decline of the Roman theatre. Christian church opposed to theatre b/c of connection btw theatre & pagan religions - evil & immoral.
Colosseum most renowned amphitheatre constructed by Romans, built around 80 C.E.
Pantomime (originally) Originally Roman entertainment where narrative was sung by chorus while story acted out by dancers.
Pantomime (current day) Loosely to cover any form of presentation that relies on dance, gesture, & physical movement w/o dialogue or speech.
Gladiator fighters
Liturgical drama Early midievil church drama, written in Latin and dealing w/ biblical stories
mystery plays Also called cycle plays. Short dramas of the MIddle Ages based on events of the Old and New Testaments and often organized into historical cycles
morality plays Medieval drama designed to teach a lesson. The characters were often allegorical and represented virtues or faults
Hrosvitha of Gandersheim c. 935-1001; Nun in German convent that wrote religious plays based on dramas of the Roman writer Terence. Not produced.
pageant wagons staging for medievil religious plays that could be rolled into a town or nearby field. Contained scenery, & had area backstage for costume changes
platform stage elevated stage w/ no proscenium
Commedia dell'arte An Italian Renaissance form of popular theatre that was highly improvisational, used stock characters, masks, and was staged by traveling professional performers
Lazzi Comic pieces of business used repeatedly by characters in Italian commedia dell'arte
Zanni Comic male servants in Italian commedia dell'arte
Slapstick a type of comedy or comic business that relies on exaggerated or ludicrous physical activity for its humor (3 stooges)
Neoclassical ideals Rules developed by critics during the Italian Renaissance, supposedly based on the writings of Aristotle.
three unities unity of time, place, action
Unity of time required that dramatic action in play should not exceed 24 hrs
Unity of place restricted the action of a play to one locale
Unity of action required that there be only one central story involving a relatively small group of characters (no subplots)
pole-and-chariot system A mechanized means of changing scenery that was developed in the Italian Renaissance. Flats were attached to poles & wheels which were shifted by means of ropes, pulleys, & single winch.
opera Invented by Italian ppl in Italy who believed they were recreating the Greek tragic style, which had fused music w/ drama. Only Italian Renaissance theatrical form that survived
verisimilitude meant that drama should be "true to life"
Italian theatrical construction revolutionized theatre design. Olimpico in Vicenza and Teatro Farnese in Parma - 1st w/ proscenium arch
perspective drawing Illusion of depth in painting, introduced into scene design during the Italian Renaissance
operetta light operas with humor and/ or some talking
Elizabeth I English Renaissance called Elizabethan period b/c she was major political figure. She reigned for 45yrs from 1558-1603. Amateur linguist
2 playwrights of the Elizabethan era (most renowned) Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare
Christopher Marlowe "Mighty Line" 1564-1593, advanced the art of dramatic structure and contributed a gallery of interesting characters to English drama. Perfected dramatic poetry.
Marlowe's important plays The Tragical History of Doctor Fastus, Tamburlaine, Edward II
William Shakespeare 1564-1616, Expert in many aspects of theatre, master of plot structure, climactic structure. Globe Theatre until it burned
William Shakespeare plays Romeo and Juliet, Julius Ceasar, Hamlet, Othello, Macbeth, King Lear, The Comedy of Errors, A Midsummer Night's Dream, As You Like It, Twelfth Night, Richard III, Henry IV, Parts 1 & 2, Henry V
Public Theatre Outdoor theatre in Elizabethan England, located just outside city limits to avoid government restrictions. All levels of society attended.
Elizabethan Theatre/ Playhouse platform stage that juts into an open courtyard, with spectators standing on 3 sides.
private theatre Elizabethan indoor spaces, lit by candles & high windows. Open to general public, but smaller & more expensive that public.
3 categories of personnel in a company, Elizabethan acting companies shareholders, hirelings, and apprentices.
shareholders (Elizabethan) elite members of the company, received a percentage of the troupe's profits as payment
hirelings (Elizabethan) actors contracted for a specific period of time and for a specific salary, & usually played minor roles.
apprentices (Elizabethan) young performers training for the profession and were assigned to shareholders
Charles I removed from the throne by the puritans and beheaded.
Oliver Cromwell governed England as a Commonwealth for 11 yrs after beheading of Charles I
Charles II was living in exile in France, but was invited by newly elected parliament to return and rule England in 1660
Restoration years 1660-1700
comedy of manners Form of comic drama satirizing social conventions that became popular in 17th century France & English Restoration, & which emphasized a cultivated or sophisticated atmosphere & witty dialogue.
ballad opera satirical w/ popular music and popularized by Beggar's Opera
The Beggar's Opera 1728, made John Gay Rich and John Rich Gay.
realism one of the 5 strands of theatre in the modern era; conveys everything onstage to resemble observable, everyday life to promote a strong sense of audience recognition & identification
Romanticism influenced by the German storm & stress movement, 1st half of 19th century
melodrama Song drama or music drama, a reference to the background music that accompanied these plays. Sought strong emotions
well-made plays tightly constructed plays w/ cause & effect development & actions revolving around a secret. Every act ends w/ a climactic moment w/ the plot carefully resolved.
Edwin Booth actor in 19th century famous for portrayal of Hamlet & other Shakespearean characters, as well as for building his own theatre
Eleonora Duse great Italian actress of late 19th century & early 20th. Known for more realistic acing style.
Gesamtkunstwerk Wagner's concept of totally unified work artwork controlled by 1 person influenced 20th century theories of "total theatre" and directing.
Richard Wagner innovative 19th century theatre building Bayreuth Festspielhaus built for him in 1876; he wanted seating that would not emphasize class distinction
the box set an arrangement in which flats are cleated together at angles - rather than parallel to audience - to form walls of the 3D room.
Modern theatre in West began w/ these three dramatists Henrik Ibsen, August Strindberg, and Anton Chekhov
Henrik Ibsen Norwegian 1828-1906; founder of modern realistic drama.Best known for A Doll's House, Ghosts, and Hedda Gabler. Stage action + everyday life
August Strindberg 2nd major figure in modern era, Best known for The Father, and Miss Julie. Focused on individuals at war w/ selves & each other instead of ppl in social context
Anton Chekhov 3rd significant figure in modern era, best known for The Sea Gull, Uncle Vanya, The Three Sisters, and The Cherry Orchard. 12-14 characters instead of 6. Blended tragedy and comedy
naturalism special form of realism developed in Europe in the late 19th century; not carefully plotted or constructed bu meant to present a "slice of life"
George Bernard Shaw Introduced by the Independent Theatre, play Widowers' Houses
symbolism movement of the late 10th century & early 20th century that sought to express inner truth rather than represent life realistically
theatre of cruelty Antonin Artaud's visionary concept of a theatre based on magic & ritual, which would liberate deep, violent, & erotic impulses.
book spoken (as opposed to sung) portion of the text of a musical play
Oklahoma Oscar Hammerstein II wrote the lyrics and libretto, Jerome Kern composed the music.
Showboat Jerome Kern combined some of the best aspects of operetta and musical comedy to create this
Porgy and Bess Gershwin - many consider it an opera rather than a musical
1st time team of Rodgers & Hammerstein worked together Oklahoma
No Japanese plays Rigidly traditional form of Japanese drama combining music, dance, and lyrics
Bunraku Japanese Japanese puppet theatre
Kabuki Japanese Form of popular Japanese theatre combining music, dance, and dramatic scenes
shadow plays India Thailand, Malaysia, & Indonesia involving intricately carved flat leather puppets that create patterns of light and shadow when their image is projected on a screen
PT Barnum founded the circus
Wild west shows Buffalo Bill, etc
vaudeville variety entertainment like burlesque and comedy
The Origin of the Species Book of evolution by Darwin
Victor Hugo Dramatist of Romantic Movement, greatest/ best known French writer
Hernani French drama by Victor Hugo
Emile Zola french novelist w/ theory of naturalism
ALexandre Dumas one of the most widely read French authors
Camille 1936 American romantic film
Sarah Bernhardt French stage actress that played many leading stage roles
Romanticism a movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual.
Sigmund Freud Austrian neurologist best known for developing the theories and techniques of psychoanalysis
American Civil War 1861-1865
minstrel shows blackface variety entertainment
Jim Crow stock character in minstrel shows
WWI 1914-1918
Industrial Revolution transition to new manufacturing process 1760-1840
Gilbert and Sullivan operettas
George M Cohan American entertainer, playwright, composer, lyricist, actor, singer, dancer and producer.
George and Ira Gershwin Team of songwriting brothers. Ira the lyracist and George the composer
Oscar Hammerstein II the most influential lyricist and librettist of the American theater.
Jerome Kern One of the most important American theatre composers of the early 20th century - Old Man River
Richard Rodgers American composer of music
Annie Get Your Gun musical with lyrics and music by Irving Berlin and a book by Dorothy Fields and her brother Herbert Fields.
Kiss Me Kate musical written by Samuel and Bella Spewack with music and lyrics by Cole Porter.
Cole Porter American composer and songwriter.
Stephen Sondeim American composer and lyricist known for more than a half-century of contributions to musical theatre.
Andrew Lloyd Weber Phantom of the Opera, Evita, Jesus Christ Superstar, Cats
Julie Taymor American director of theater, opera and film. She is best known for directing the stage musical The Lion King, for which she became the first woman to win the Tony Award for directing
West Side Story American musical-romantic drama film directed by Robert Wise and Jerome Robbins.
phantom of the opera Andrew Lloyd Weber, longest running broadway show
Asian theatre older than Greek theatre
Irving Berlin's birthday 5/11/1888
only state to use a Broadway song for state song Oklahoma
Kansas State song Home on the Range
1960 The Sound of Music
1927 Showboat, the Jazz Singer
1943 Oklahoma!
LP for Jesus Christ Superstar 1969
2nd longest running show on Broadway Lion King
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