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Ortho - Knee

Knee biomechanics

What is the largest joint in the body? knee
What is the most frequently injured joint in the body? knee
What are the three joints of the knee joint? tibial-femoral, patello-femoral, superior tib-fib
What kind of joint is the knee? modified hinge joint
How many degrees of freedom does the knee have? 2
The primary motion of the knee is what? flexion and extension
The knee has some rotation possible but only in what position? knee flexion
What is the normal ROM for flexion extension? 0-140
Range of motion or internal and external rotation is influenced by the amount of knee _________. Flexion
In full knee extension rotation is almost completely restricted due to what? interlocking of femoral and tibial condyles
Rotation is at a maximum at __ degrees of knee flexion. 90
Normal external rotation ROM is? 0-45
Normal IR ROM is? 0-30
___ prevents excessive internal rotation, guides the knee in flexion, resists posterior translation of the tibia on the femur PCL
___ stops excessive internal rotation, stabilizes the knee in full extension and prevents hyperextension ACL
What is the purpose of the meniscus? It deepens tibial plateau and lends stability to the knee
The meniscus Decreases friction by __% 20
The meniscus increases contact area by __% 70
Removing the meniscus can do what to the joint? Increase wear on articulating surfaces, and increase chance of developing degenerative joint disease
Which menisci is C-shaped, thicker posteriorly, and has a firm attachment to the deep layers of the MCL? medial meniscus
Which menisci is o-shaped, has uniform thickness, and a loose attachment to the lateral capsule? lateral meniscus
What is the red-red zone of the meniscus? Outer 1/3 of meniscus that has good potential to heal due to better blood supply
What is the red-white zone of the meniscus? Middle 1/3 that may have healing potential but less blood supply that outer portion
What is the white-white zone of the meniscus? Inner 1/3 that has no blood supply and won’t heal
The MCL prevent what motion and what stress? motion=abduction & ER, stress=valgus
The LCL prevents what motion and what stress? motion=adduction, stress=varus
The MCL assists in _____ translation of the tibia. anterior
What is the origin of the ACL? posteromedial aspect of lateral femoral condyle
What is the insertion of the ACL anterior intercondylar eminence of the tibia
The ACL works to prevent ______ translation of the tibia on the femur and also stabilizes against _____ stress as well. anterior, valgus
What becomes more active in stabilizing the knee when there is an ACL deficiency? the hamstrings
The anteromedial bundle of the ACL functions with the knee in a _____ position. flexed
The posterolateral bundle functions with the knee in ________ position extended
From __ to __ degrees of motion the ACL is under the most stress. 30-0
From __ to __ degrees the ACL is under the least amount of stress. 110-50
The ___ is one of the strongest ligaments in the body. PCL
The PCL prevents ________ translation of the tibia on the femur. posterior
Is the PCL often injured in athletics? What is the most common MOI of the PCL? no, hitting dashboard in MVA
What exercises might a physical therapist want to avoid while treating a patient with a PCL injury? hamstring exercises as they can posteriorly translate the tibia on the femur
How do you measure the q-angle? make a line from the ASIS to the middle of the patella, make another line from the middle of the patella to the tibial tuberosity and measure the angle between the two lines.
What the typical q-angle for a male? A female? 10-14 degrees, 15-17 degrees
The greatest compressive force at PF joint will be at approximately __ degrees. 90
As the Q-angle increases, the resultant “sideways” vector will ________. increase
What is PLICA? Synovial thickening present in ~ 50% population
People with this syndrome typically have pain medially and it may be caused by overuse or trauma. PLICA syndrome
Created by: txst sum 2009
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