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psychology

Biopsychology

QuestionAnswer
Nervous system consists of the central Nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
consists of the brain and spinal chord, is the origin of all complex commands and decisions Central nervous system
peripheral nervous system send information to the central nervous system from the outside work and from the CNS to the muscles and glands in the body
two sections the peripheral nervous system can be divided into autonomic and somatic nervous systems
transmits information from the receptor cells in the sense organs to the central nervous system also receive information from the CNS directing muscles to act Somatic nervous system
Autonomic nervous system transmits information to and from internal body organs. it is autonomic as it operates involuntarily
the two further separations of the autonomic nervous system sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
one of the body's main information systems which instructs glands to release hormones directly into the blood stream the endocrine system
an organ in the body which synthesises substances such as hormones Glands
the way an animal responds when stressed. the body becomes physiologically aroused so it is ready to either fight danger or run away fight or flight response
the basic building blocks of the nervous system, nerve cells that process and transmit messages through electrical and chemical signals neurons
carry message from the PNS to the CNS. they have long dendrites and short axons Sensory neurons
connect relay neurons to sensory neurons. have short dendrites and short axons Relay neurons
connect the CNS to effectors such as muscle and glands. they have short dendrites and long axons motor neurons
how many types of neuron are there 3
the process by which neighbouring neurons communicate by sending chemical signals across the synaptic cleft which separates them synaptic transmission
when a neurotransmitter such as adrenaline increases the positive charge of the post synaptic neuron increasing the chance that it will fire and the signal will be passed on excitation
when a neurotransmitter such as serotonin increases the negative charge of the post synaptic neuron decreasing the chance that it will fire and the electrical impulse will continue inhibition
the name given to the electrical impulse which travels down the axon of a neuron Action Potential
the theory that different areas if the brain are responsible for different processes, behaviours and activities localisation
an area of the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere responsible in most people for the production of speech Broca's area
an area in the temporal lobe in the left hemisphere (in most people) responsible for language comprehension wernicke's area
who used brain scans to support the existence of localisation and Broca's and Wernickes areas pertersen 1988
Neural Plasticity The brains tendency to change and adapt (functionally and physically) as a result of a new experience or learning
a form of plasticity. the brain ability to after trauma redistribute the functions usually performed by damaged areas to undamaged areas Functional recovery
who performed research into the plasticity of the brain by looking at London taxi drivers Eleanor McGuire et al. 2000
what did Eleanor McGuire find about the brains of London taxi drivers she found the there was a significantly bigger amount of grey matter in the posterior hippo-campus than the control group
what three things happen in the brain during recovery axonal sprouting, reformation of blood vessels and recruitment of homologous (similar) areas on the opposite side of the brain to perform specific tasks
what is axonal sprouting the growth of new nerve endings which connect with other undamaged nerves to make new neuronal pathways
the idea that the two halves of the brain are functionally different and that certain mental processes and behaviours are mainly controlled by one hemisphere rather than the other lateralisation
a series of studies which started in the 1960's involving epileptic patients who had undergone a commisurotomy of the brain , this allowed psychologists to study lateralisation Split brain research
who was the main psychologist to perform split brain research R Sperry, 1968
what are the four ways of investigating the brain Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fmri's), electroencephalograms (eeg's) event related potantials (erp's) and post mortem examinations
a type of biological rhythm which is subject to a 24 hour cycle and regulates many body processes such as the sleep wake cycle and core temperature circadian rhythm
a type of biological rhythm with a frequency of less than once every 24 hours e.g. menstrual cycle Infradian rhythm
a type of biological rhythm which occurs more than once every 24 hours such as the stages of sleep Ultradian rhythm
Seasonal Affective disorder a depressive disorder which has a seasonal pattern of onset. it can either be classed as a circannual rhythm due to its yearly cycle or a circadian rhythm as it may be due to the diruption of the sleep wake cycle.
Which famous psychologist conducted a study of his own biological rhythms by spending 2 months in the caves of the southern alpes Michael Siffre , 1962
internal body clocks which regulate many of our biological rhythms such as the effect of the SCN on the sleep wake cycle Endogenous Pacemakers
external cues which may affect or entrain our biological rhythms such as the affect of light on the sleep wake cycle exogenous zeitgebers
Created by: Madz99