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Physics Final

LCCC Test 3-Final

WTF is this?No shit Sherlock
First non-contrast film for angio series? Scout
__ is the black & white reversal of the scout (for film based angio)? Mask Film
Subtraction Print Film is exposed through the superimposed (stacked) __ & __? Mask & Angiogram w Contrast
Steps of analog Fluoro? TV Camera creates Analog Signal it sends to TV Monitor
Steps of DSA TV Camera/CCD/FPD→analog signal→amplifier→ADC→Dig Signal→Computer→Manipulation→DAC→analog signal→TV Monitor
ADC converts analog TV signal to __ (Dig) , which is expressed how? Binary, 0s & 1s
Matrix Size & Pixel Depth (Shades of gray) are powers of __ ? 2
Image Intensifiers & TV/CCD systems provide LESS distortion (↑ quality) and LOWER dose than Flat panel detectors? (T/F) False - FPD better
DSA uses MORE contrast medium than Film? (T/F) False - Less or Diluted contrast
__ is an advantage of DSA used in surgery, where a set point can remain on screen like a roadmap? Landmarking
DSA Equipment needs are greater in general. Type of generator used? Better TV Camera or FPD with __ signal to noise ratio? DSA 3 phase or HiFreq, 1000:1 SNR
__ is imaging when the Tube or IR move during exposure? Tomography
Pivot point of motion for the tube or IR? Fulcrum
Type of imaging where a FULCRUM moves with patient/table are stationary? Variable Tomography
Type of imaging where the PATIENT or Table move through a fulcrum? Fixed Tomography
(Fixed/Variable) Tomography is more common? (Fixed/Variable) Tomography keeps magnification constant on all images? Variable common, Fixed constant Mag
In Tomography, ↑ Amplitude/Exposure angle = __ Blur = __ Focal plane thickness? ↑ Angle = ↑ Blurring = ↓ Plane Thickness
How does increasing the object distance from the focal plane affect Tomography? ↑ Distance = ↑ Blurring
In Tomography, ↑ OID = __ Blur = __ Magnification? ↑ OID = ↑ Blurring = ↑ Magnification
How does Tube Trajectory affect Tomography? Greater complexity, more Blurring, less artifacts
Blurring of structures (Inside/Outside) of focal plane enhances contrast/visibility of structures (Inside/Outside) the focal plane? Outside (Blur), Inside (Detail)
Increasing the Tomographic Angle INCREASES the plane of focus thickness? (T/F) False - ↑ angle = ↓ slice thickness
__ is Tomography of curved structures where the fulcrum moves during exposure? Pantomography (Panorex)
Plane of focus thickness for 10° Tomography? 40°? 50°? 10° 7mm, 40° 2mm, 50° 1mm
1st slice for Renal Tomography is taken at what measure? Lower poles of kidney are more __ than upper poles? 1/3, Lower more Anterior
If the 1st Renal Tomogram was at 10" from the table and shows the UPPER poles, what are the next to slices at? 11", 12" (bcuz Uppers POSTERIOR, move UP)
Magnification Factor Formula Mag = SID/SOD
% of Magnification Formula % Mag = (OID/SOD) x 100
Currently DSA rarely uses Magnification because modern technology allows for visualization of small structures and blood vessels? (T/F) True - Mag was film-screen
__ is the vital unitasking computer part that accesses instructions and responds to commands? CPU
Portion of the CPU for storage & access of information? Control Unit
Where all calculations & instructions OCCUR in the CPU? Arithmetic/Logic Unit
Fundamental machine instructions, or __, are read by what Type of Memory? Firmware, ROM (Read Only)
These processors perform multiple equations simultaneously and are used in CT, MRI, PET? Array Processors
CRT, LCD/LED flat panel, printer, PACS are examples of what? Output Devices
Laser film printers use __ & __ lasers to expose film prior to development? Infrared & Helium Neon
__ is a 2D representation of a 3D volume? Where are they used? Voxel, CT & MRI
What is average RESOLUTION in pixels per mm ? 3-6
Mathematical formulas that can reconstruct original image & can modify Image Quality? Algorithms
Pixel size in CR is determined by __ ? Sampling Frequency
Pixel size in DR is determined by __ ? DEL size = Pixel size
Pixel size formula Field of view/Matrix
__ is the differences in data values that result in monitor Brightness or printed Density? ( ↑ Value = ↑ __ ) Contrast
__ is the ability to see small differences in Attenuation? (Grays of neighboring pixels) Contrast Resolution
__ is the range of Values a Pixel can display? Depends on __ ? Dynamic Range, Byte length/depth (1 byte=8 bit)
__ controls image Brightness displayed? Window Level
__ controls image Contrast displayed? Window Width (wide=long scale)
Detector Size, Pixel Size, Display Matrix Size...control what? Resolution
DR flat panel detectors can be read at what rate? Is this real time video? 30x/sec, Yes
Photostimulable Phosphor used in CR imaging? PSP - Europium-doped Barium Fluorohalide
PSP stores __ that is released as light when stimulated by a __ ? Charge, Laser
Light released from PSP is detected & measured by __ which digitizes it? PMT - Photomultiplier Tube
Max resolution for CR? 6 lp/mm
Artifacts (Moray pattern) on CR plates can occur with __ lpi grids? 103
S value relation to dose? Manufacturer example? Range? S# ↑ = Dose ↓, Fuji, 100-300
Exposure Index relation to dose? Manufacturer example? Range? EI ↑ = Dose ↑, Carestream, 1900-2150
LgM relation to dose? Manufacturer example? Range? LgM ↑ = Dose ↑, Agfa, 1.9-2.5
With Indirect DR, __ converts x-rays into light? Cesium Iodide Phosphor
With Indirect DR, light is converted to electrons by an __ made of __ photodiodes? Active Matrix Array (AMA) of Amorphous SILICON
Cesium Iodide Phosphor converts x-rays to light. AMA of Amorphous Silicon converts light to electrons. TFT stores electrons as "latent" image. These are the steps of DIRECT (T/F)? False - INDIRECT
Average Resolution for Indirect DR? 4 lp/mm
With Direct DR, __ converts x-rays into electrons which are collected by the __ ? Amorphous SELENIUM, TFT Array
__ is the matrix of DELs that store electrons as "latent" image for both Direct & Indirect DR? TFT - Thin Film Transistor
Average Resolution for Direct DR? 5 lp/mm
1 CR/DR image can contain as many as __ million pixels? What is the storage equivalent? 25 million pixels = 25 megabytes
Before Loss-Less compression, 1 gigabyte could store __ full resolution DR images? 40
Matrix size for Radiologist's viewing monitors? 2,048
__ is the standard communication protocol for digital/PACS systems? DICOM (Dig Imag & Comm in Med)
Digital Contrast Enhancement makes CR very comparable to Film Resolution Quality (T/F)? True
Pixels are measured in __ ? microns (1=.001 mm)
Actual resolution is slightly MORE than 2x the pixel size (T/F)? False - Pixel Res<2x Pixel Size
In CR, there may be small spaces btwn pixels to prevent the spread of __ ? Light ("bleed")
States we need to sample 2x the smallest thing we can see, or we need pixels 1/2 the size of smallest thing? Nyquist Theory
Best Resolution with SMALL Matrix and LARGE Pixels (T/F)? False - Small Pixel, Large Matrix
A Matrix with 10 pixels/mm would have __ Resolution? 5 lp/mm
Created by: RadTechTKD