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Wood Framing

Wall and Ceiling Framing

QuestionAnswer
Name the five (5) systems used for wood frame construction. a) western platform framing b) balloon framing c) post and beam d) pole frame e) structural insulated panels
What is the distinguishing feature of western platform framing? Floors and walls are constructed separately, with the completed floor becoming the working platform.
What acts as firestops in platform framing? wall plates
What is the disadvantage of using solid lumber joists in platform framing? Shrinkage occurs in the width of the floor joists.
In balloon framing, how high do the wall studs extend in a two-storey building? Each stud is toenailed to the sill plate and is continuous from the sill plate to the roof rafters.
How are floors supported in balloon framing? The main floor rests on the foundation mud sill. Upper floors are nailed to the side of studs and rest on a let in ribbon.
What is the major advantage of balloon framing? Fewer problems associated with shrinkage.
Why can framing members in post and beam construction be spaced further apart? Larger framing members can carry larger loads.
Why is thicker roof sheathing required for post and beam construction? Roof framing is spaced farther apart, so thicker sheathing is needed to reduce deflection.
What is the interior and exterior finish attached to in post and beam construction? Stud walls are erected between posts to create backing for interior and exterior finishes.
What function do the poles serve in pole construction? The poles act as the building foundation.
What is the maximum allowable moisture content for framing lumber? 19%.
In the platform system, which framing member is used to support loads that occur over openings in walls? Lintels
In balloon framing, how are roof and floor loads transferred to the foundation? Roof loads transfer to wall studs. Upper storey floor loads transfer to the studs by a let-in ribbon. The studs then transfer the loads to the foundation.
What factors are used to determine the minimum allowable stud size for a building? supported load, stud spacing, interior or exterior wall height, unsupported height
What is the purpose of trimmer or jack studs? carry the load from the lintel to the foundation
What is the minimum end bearing for a lintel? 38mm
Where are cripple studs placed in a wall frame? above and below wall openings.
What is commonly used to provide anchorage and backing where two walls intersect? L stud, U stud or ladder
Blueprints show a section view of a conventionally framed wall. The ceiling height is 97 1/8" What length of stud is needed? 97 1/8 - 3 wall plates (4 1/2) = 92 5/8
If there are irregularities in the floor frame, how far may the wall plates overhang the floor? 1/3 the width of the plate
Why is it desirable to have the wall studs occur directly over the floor joists? better load transfer and eliminates problems for sub trades
Why are door and window rough openings larger than the finished size? insulation and leveling
What is the first step in laying out rough openings? find the centre
What determines the length of the trimmer? the height between the bottom plate to lintel
What determines the length of the rough sill? the width of the R/O
What are two alternatives to an L post where a partition intersects a wall? a) u post b) ladder
If wall studs are laid out 16" o.c, what is the measurement to the edge of the first stud? 15 3/4"
When laying out regular studs, what must be done where a rough opening occurs? mark out studs that fall in R/O as cripples
According to the National Building Code, what length and quantity of nails are needed to end nail wall plates and studs together? 2 nails, 82mm long
When assembling the wall frame, what is done to the studs prior to placing them? crown the studs up
What is usually done with cap plates at corners and partition intersections? cap plates are lapped
Once the wall frame is assembled, what must be done before sheathing is applied? wall must be squared to eliminate racking
How is sheathing started if a long side wall is framed first? sheathing must be flush
On short side walls, the sheathing should project past the framing by how much? sheathing should project the thickness of the wall
What is the nailing pattern for applying wall sheathing? 150 o.c spacing for edges and 300 o.c spacing in the field
After an exterior wall is erected, what is done to the sole plate? align w/chalk line start from one end and straighten
What are some distinguishing features of a rake wall? sloped top plate and studs cut at an angle
When building interior walls, what problem may result if all the short partitions are erected first? no or little space left for long walls
What is a non-loadbearing partition? supports no load other than itself
If a non-loadbearing wall runs parallel to the floor joists, how must it be supported? blocking every 1.2 meters or another joist running under the wall
If the partitions have an insulated ceiling above them what must be placed between the top and cap plates during assembly? 400mm strip of polyethylene
What method is used to straighten the top wall? string line and feeler blocks
What is the best way to secure the bottoms of wall braces? nail a block to the floor joists
If a stud in a load bearing wall must be notched, how much solid lumber must be left? at least 2/3 the width of the framing member must be intact
Why would a plumbing wall be constructed out of 2X6 rather than 2X4 studs? to accommodate plumbing drains and vent stacks
What may be used to provide anchorage for a stair handrail? backing or blocking
What is a girth? a framing member used to stiffen walls (ie. blocking)
When framing walls, what consideration must be made for the application of drywall? sufficient backing
Why is a 400mm strip of polyethylene placed between the top and cap plates and the exterior wall partitions? continuous vapor barrier
What is the main purpose of ceiling joists? tie exterior walls together and resist outward pressure
How should ceiling joists be fastened to the wall plates? 2 toe nails, 82mm long
Identify three ways in which ceiling joists can meet on top of an interior bearing wall. a) butted and cleated b) lapped c) lapped w/blocking between
How is joist layout affected when joists are lapped over an interior wall? on center spacing is offset
What must be done to the outside ends of ceiling joists? ends must be cut 10mm shy of rafters @ the same angle
What are stub joists? perpendicular ceiling framing members used in place of the end joist where hip rafters interfere with standard layout
According to the National Building Code, what is the minimum size of an attic access required in a single family home? 0.32m² no side shorter than 500mm
What must be done to the joists if an opening in the ceiling is wider than two joist spaces? must be doubled on either side of the opening
Where would a flush beam be required? in open areas where there is no bearing for a load
What is a strongback? 2x4 and 2x6 fastened together to form an L that runs perpendicular to joists, reducing deflection and maintaining set spacing
When can a single top plate be used? joists or rafters bear directly over or within 50mm of the edge of wall studs
In a load bearing wall, what is used when there is a joint in a single top plate? metal strap or plate at least 75mm x 150mm
What is the maximum set spacing allowable by code? 24" o.c
Up to how much shrinkage is to be expected per floor in platform framing? 12mm
What is a common material used for roof sheathing in post and beam construction? 1 1/2" tongue and groove
Two methods for pole construction. a) cut poles at elevation of the floor b) leave the poles full length
What are some components of a structurally insulated panel system? OSB, polyurethane, framing, interior skin (thermal barrier)
Where does the most shrinkage occur in lumber? across the width, then the thickness
Studs used for loadbearing walls must be at least what grade? Stud, Standard or No.2
Studs used for non-loadbearing walls may be what grade? Stud, Utility or No.3
What is the difference in load transfer when using trusses compared to convention lumber? truss systems often transfer all loads to the exterior walls and have a larger span, conventional lumber has a smaller span which increases the number of interior partitions
What is a major problem in platform framing in high wind or earthquake prone areas? pony walls have very little resistance to lateral loads which can create a hinge effect
On load bearing walls, if no sheathing is used or does not provide lateral support, what additional support is required? let in bracing, running 45 degrees from top of wall to bottom of stud, at least 1x4 material
What is the purpose of a cap plate? extra lateral strength and allow rafters to transfer loads with minimal deflection
What is the minimum stud size? 2X3
When the span of a lintel is over 3m, how much bearing does each end need? 76mm
What direction are walls typically laid out from? left to right from the street view
When constructing a ladder to receive a partition wall, what is the minimum spacing of each framing member? min. 600mm o.c
How big is the gap left between rows of wall sheathing? 2mm
How should a wall be fastened to the floor system in platform framing? 82mm nails at least 400mm o.c fastened into joists or blocking
How far can a loadbearing wall that carries only framed ceiling loads be from it's support below? 900mm
How far can a loadbearing wall supporting a floor load be from it's support? 600mm
How much material can be left after notching or drilling into a non loadbearing stud? 40mm
What framing member sits directly above the wall studs? rafter or truss
What framing member sits adjacent to the wall studs? ceiling joist
Created by: catabisful