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Neurospychology

organisation of the nervous system

QuestionAnswer
What are the 2 major branches of the nervous system? the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
What does the central nervous system consist of? the brain and the spinal chord
What does the CNS do? Mediates behavious
What does the PNS do? nerves that carry signal to and from the brain and spinal chord
What does the PNS consist of? the somatic and autonomic nervous systems
What does the somatic nervous system do? transmits incoming sensory info to the CNS (eg vision, pain, touch etc) and the position and movement of body parts, and produces movements in response
what does the autonomic system do? parasympathetic = rest and digest (calming) sympathetic = fight or flee (arousing)
What are the 4 support and protection systems of the CNS? 1. the skull and vertebrae 2. the triple layer of menges (dura, arachnoid and pia) 3. cerobrospinal fluid 4. blood brain barrier
what are the 2 types of neurons? sensory (afferent)- conducts signals from recpetors to CNS interneurons and motor (efferent) - conducts signals from the CNS to effectors such as mucles
What is gray matter made up of? cell bodies and capilaries
What is white matter made up of? axons- mylenated
The major strucures of the CNS and their levels of functions forebrain= cognitive processes brainstem: regulatory functions spinal cord = reflexive motor functions
What is the brain stem's functions? mediate a variety of regulatory functions
Where is the brainstem located? Just above the spinal cord where it enters the skill and extends up into the lower areas of teh forebrain
WHat are the three main areas of the brain stem the hind brain, the midbrain and the dycephalon
What can happen if the brainstem is damaged? Coma or death
What are parts of the hindbrain? Cerebellum reticular formation pons medulla
What are the functions of the Cerebellum? motor coordination, motor learning, balance, posture
What can happen when the Cerebellum is damaged? equilibrium problems, postural defects and impaired skilled motor activity
What are the functions of the pons? nuclei within the pons bridge inputs from cerebellum to the rest of the brain vital body movements
What are the functions of the medulla? regulates vital functions such as breathing and functioning of the cardiovascular system
What happens when the medula is damages? stops breathing and heart function. can = death
what are the subdivsions of the midbrain? tectum tegmentum
What are the functions of the tectum? receives sensory infro from the eyes and ears?
what are the structures in the tectum that receives projections from the eyes and ears. superior colliculi = eyes inferior colliculu = ears
What behaviours are mediated by the colloculi? locating objects in suroundinf space and orienting thise visual or auditory objects
Where is the tectum located. posterior - roof
where is the tegmentum located? the anterior- floor
WHat are the functions of the tegmentum? related to motor structures
What are the structures of the tegmentum? red nucleus = limb movement substantia nigra = connects to forebrain - NB for rewarding behaviors periaqueductal gray matter - species typical behvaiour and pain responses
Where is the diencephalon located? at the junction of the midbrain and forbrain
What are the structures of the diencephalon? the hypothalamus, epithalamus and thalamus
Where is the hypothalamus located? Lower room - anterior
What are the functions of the hypothalamus? almost all aspects of motivated behavior - feeding, sex, sleeping, temperature, emotional behavior and movement connects to the pituitary gland = endocrine functions
Where is the epithalamus located? posterior = upper room
What are the functions of the epithalamus? daily and seasonal body rhythms = contains pineal gland which secretes melatonin habenula = regulated hunger and thirst
Where is the thalamus located? inner room
What is the role of the thalamus? almost all the info the cortex perceived is first relayed through here like the hub interconnecting many brain regions
What are the structures of the forebrain basal ganlia, libic system, cerebral cortex
Where is the basal ganglia located? beneath the anterior ragions of teh cortex. subcortical
What are the structures in the basal ganglai? Putamen globus pallidus caudate nucleus - receives projections from all areas of teh cortex and sends own projections through putamen and globus pallidus also has connections with substantia nigra
Functions of basal ganglia movement and learning
What are the disorders of the basal ganglia? Parkinson's - degeneration of neurons in substantia nigra that produce dopamine Hutingtons - death of cless Tourettes
What are the functions of the limbic system> self-regulatory behaviours, emotions, personal memories, spatial behvaiour and social behaviour
what are the structures of the limbic system? amygdala, hippocampus, cingulate cortex
Where is the amygdala located? The base of the temporal lobe
What does the amygdala control? emotion
Where is the hippocampus located? anterior medial region of the temporal lobe
What does the hippocampus control? Personal memory and spatial navigation
Where is the cingulate cortex located? Just above thecorpus callosum along the medial walls of teh cerebral hemispheres
What does the cingulate cortex control? Sexual behvaiour and other social interactions
Boundaries of the frontal lobes posterialy = central sulcus inferior = lateral fissure mediallly = cingulate sulcus
Parietal lobe boundaries anerior = central sulcus inferior = lateral fissure
Bounderies of temporal lobes dorsally = lateral fissure
Created by: Jem S