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Dunlosky 2013

Efective learning techniques - (improving student's learning

Aim To review and evaluate the best revision techniques for students. As they a) seem to struggle and b) to check if their techniques are effective
Method Four categories of variables for generalisability
Four categories of variables for generalisability 1) Materials (vocab, maps..) 2) Learning condition (group / ind) 3) Student characteristics (age, motivation) 4) Criterion tasks ( cued or free recall)
Conclusion Certain low utility strategies such as highlighting and summarising can work well if the strategies are known, however, in general not too effective. High utility methods - practice learning and Distributed practice.
Low utility Summation, highlighting, keyword mnemonic, imagery for text learning and reading
Medium utility Elaborate interrogation Self-explanation Interleaved practice
High Utility Practice learning and distributed practice.
LU Summation Pressley - critical - definition?
LU Highlighting Fowler- Active/ Passive Highlighting and control group (3 con)
LU Keyword Mnemonic French vocab examples (atkinsons) Spanish vocab- image=better
LU Imagery for text learning Mentally imagine, better when listening than reading
LU Rereading Better for recall of main ideas than specific details. However, comparing this to other methods, the utility is low- despite many students using it!!
MU -Elaborate interrogation Pressely, (3 cond.) Elaborative Interrogation (72%) Provided Int. (37) Reading (37)
MU Self explanation Berry - Best if the students had worked out (and explained how) the problem themselves
MU -Interleaved practice Not much research - could work when diff methods used
HU- Practice testing Across ages - little work on ind.diff and learns characteristics Karpicke 2006 - read x 4 / read x 3 and test x 1 / read x 1 and test x3
Distributed Practice Bude, 2011 New stats course- 8 weeks or 6 months (2 cond) -Over ages and materials Explore ind.diff and higher level cognition
Created by: OceanOH