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Pharmacy Technician

Chapter Two

QuestionAnswer
If there is a warning (flag) that pops up on the computer, what should the technician do? Alert the pharmacist
What are capsules? A dosage type; Small, oblong gelatin filled with medicine
What are tablets? A dosage type; Solid dosage form that varies in color, shape, size, weight, and other properties.
What is a buccal tablet? A medication form that is placed between the cheek and gum in order for it to dissolve and be absorbed rapidly
What is a sublingual tablet? A medication form that is placed under the tongue in order to be dissolved and released rapidly
What are chewable tablets? A medication form that is chewed beore being swallowed.
What are Effervescent tablets? A medication form that contains mixtures of acids and sodium bicarbonate as well as active ingredients. They dissolve rapidly in water and are intended to be taken in water.
What are Enteric-coated tablets? A medication form that has a special coating that prevents the medication to be absorbed into the stomach which could minimize the effects of the medication
What are troches and lozenges? A medication form that is held in the mouth while they dissolve. They are kept in contact with the mouth and throat for an extended period of time that allows medication to be released for longer.
What are controlled-release products release medication over extended periods of time to avoid high concentrations in the digestive tract, or to provide longer durations of action than are available through conventional dosage forms.
Controlled-releaase products contain what? 2-4 times the regular dose and release it from 8-24 hours
What does LA mean? Long acting
What does SA mean? Sustained action
What does SR mean? Sustained release
What does CR mean? Controlled release
What does XR/Xl mean? Extended release
What does TR mean? Timed release
What are Solutions? preparations in which the solid ingredients of the medication are dissolved in a liquid; can contain some color but are usually clear
What are suspensions? Substances in which medication particles are suspended in liquid. The medicaiton is not dissolved. Shake stock bottles well before dispensing. "shake well" auxiliary label is required.
What are reconstituting powders to liquids? requires the addition of a specific amount of distilled water to convert into solutions or suspensions. Manufactured adn stored as dry powder. Lasts 10-14 days after being added to water. Dispense immediately
What are Elixirs? clear, hydroalcoholic liquids intended for oral use. Often contain flavoring
What are fluid extracts and tinctures? Use alcohol, water, or a combination as their base, and usually contain plant extracts as active ingredients
What are spirits or essences? alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions of volatile substances containing high percentage of alcohol and require storage in a tight container to prevent loss through evaporation
What are syrups? concentrated solutions of sugar in water with added active ingredients that may also contain alcohol
What are emulsions? mixtures of oil and water. they separate into an oil layer on top of a water layer. Shake stock bottles well before dispensing. Auxiliary label "Shake Well" is required
What are ointments? greasy preparations, usually with a petroleum jelly base. They are good for delivering medication to the skin that need protection. Leaves oily coating on skin
What are creams? combinations of water, oil, and other substances. Usually do not offer as much protection as ointments, but may be more appealing because creams are less greasy and are usually absorbed by the skin
What are lotions? like creams, but contain more liquid and are esier to apply over larger areas of the body
What are liniments? mixtures of various substances in oil, alcoholic solutions of soap, or emulsions intended for external application. They are usually used for their heat-producing effects
What are gels? semisolid suspensions of very small particles, usually in a water base
What are collodions? liquids that dry as flexible films on the skin. Many wart, corn, or callous removers are prepared as these
What are transdermal patches? topical delivery systems designed for prolonged action. Medications are provided in patches that stick to the skin with adhesives. The skin absorbs constant amounts from 12 hours to several days.
What are suppositories? topical dosage forms usually manufactured in cylindrical, egg, or pear shapes and inserted into the rectum. Some are inserted into the vagina
What are vaginal tablets? inserted into the vagina. When typing directions for vaginal tablets or suppositories, remind patients to remove any outer wrapping before insertion
What are otic and ophthalmic preparations? considered topical dosage forms. Otic medications are usually supplied in dropper bottles, and ophthalmic preparations are supplied as drop or ointments. Ophthalmic medications must be sterile
What are Aerosols? sprayable products that use pressurized gas and valve systems to deliver medications. Most commonly used for topical application to the skin or inhalation into the lungs and nasal passages
What are chewing gums? Used to administer medication. The mouth's mucous membranes absorb the medication.
What are parenteral medications? Sterile preparations that are injected with syringes. Insulin is the most common
What are analgesics used for and what are examples? Pain relief; aspirin, ibuprofen, acetaminophen
What are external analgesics and what are examples? Topical pain relief; Methyl salicylate, trolamine salicylate, capsoicin, pramoxine
What are antacids and what are examples? Relief of gastrointestinal discomfort; TUMS, Mylanta, Maalox
What are Antiflatulents and what are examples? Relief of gas; Beano, Gas-X
What are laxatives and what are examples? Relief of constipation; Metamucil, Citrucel, Dulcolax
What are antidiarrheals and what are examples? Relief of diarrhea; Imodium, Pepto-Bismol, Kaopectate
What are antitussives and what are examples? Cough suppressions; Dextromethorhpan (found in many cough products)
What are expectoants and what are examples? Clearing of respiratory phlegm; Guaifenesin
What are decongestants and what are examples? Loosening of congestion; Oxymetazoline, phenylephrine
What are antihistamines and what are examples? Drying of secretions; Diphenhydramine, cetirizine, loratadine
What are eye care products used for and what are examples? Relief of stinging, itching, dryness, and/or redness; Visine, ketotifen
What are antibiotic creams and what are examples? Treatment or prevention of infection; Neomycin, polymyxin
What are Pediculicides and what are examples? Treatment of lice; Permethrin
What are Antifungals and what are examples? Treatment of fungal infections; Clotrimazole, miconazole, terbinafine, butenafine
What are Sunburn and burn care products used for and what are examples? Relief of burning pain; Lidocaine
What are antinauseants and what are examples? Relief of nausea or motion sickness; Meclizine, dimenhydrinate
What are sleep aids used for and what are examples? Sleep promotion; Diphenhydramine
What types of medications may a technicians be involved in directing or selling to patients? *Self-testing aids *Durable medical equipment *Vitamin and minerals *Herbal remedies
What is a pharmacy technician's role in OTC medications? *May direct a patient to OTC medications *May NOT recommend OTC medications
What are examples of analgesics (Pain medicines)? *Acetaminophen (Tylenol) *Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) *Acetaminophen/hydrocodone combination (Vicodin) *Acetaminophen/ oxycodone combination (Percocet)
What are examples of antibiotics (infection aids)? *Amoxicillin (Amoxil) *Azithromycin (Zithromax) *Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) *Clarithromycin (Biaxin XL) *Levofloxacin (Levaquin)
What are examples of Anticoagulant (blood clot inhibitors)? *Enoxaparin sodium (Lovenox) *Heparin sodium (Heparin) *Warfarin sodium (Coumdin)
What are examples of anticonvulsants? *Clonazepam (Klonopin) *Phenobarbital sodium (Solfoton) *Gabapentin (Neurontin) *Phynytoin sodium (Dilantin)
What potential interactions/ adverse effects do blood thinners have? Can interact with other medications and foods to increase bleeding or decrease the medication's effectiveness. Diet can also be a factor in the effectiveness of warfarin.
What potential interactions/ adverse effects do heart products have? Other drugs can affect the metabolism of these medications and small changes can result in significant effects such as toxicity or lack of efficacy
What potential interactions/ adverse effects do antibiotics have? Rashes and diarrhea are the most common side effects of these medications. Some may cause photosensitivity and affect the metabolism of other medications
What potential interactions/ adverse effects do diuretics have? Changes in serum potassium and sodium levels directly associated with these medications can have serious side effects
What potential interactions/ adverse effects do herbal products have? Many can directly affect the potency of prescription medications and should therefore be noted in the patient's profile. Herbal products should be carefully considered before taking concurrently with other medications
What type of drug is used to reduce a fever? Antipyretic
If a patient has a dry cough without a runny nose or nasal or chest congestion, which medicine should they take? Antitussive
Why would you use an immediate release product? Patients can have more control over the amount of drug taken
Levofloxacin is what type of medication? Antibiotic
ACE inhibitors Class of antihypertensive drugs, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors
Adsorbent Antidiarrheal product that promotes fluid and electrolyte absorption to prevent dehydration and electrolyte imbalance
Analgesic A substance that provides pain relief
Antiemetic A drug used to reduce nausea and vomiting
Anti-inflammatory A substance that reduces inflammation caused by allergic reactions, irritation, or disorders such as arthritis
Antineoplastic drugs Chemotherapeutic agents that help control or cure cancer
Antipruritic A drug or chemical that reduces itching
Antipyretic A substance that reduces fever
Antiseptic Agent used to inhibit the growth of microbes on living tissue
Bactericidal Agent that kills bacteria
Bacteriostatic Agent that inhibits the growth or development of bacteria
Black box warning Warning included by the manufacturer at the beginning of the package insert concerning serious adverse effect
Buccal tablets Tablets designed for the cheek so the drug is absorbed through the oral mucosa
Chemotherapeutic drugs Drugs used in the treatment of cancer that can destroy normal living cells
Compressed tablets Tablets produced by a tablet press exerting great pressure on powders and shaped by punches and dies of various sizes
Controlled-release tablets Tablets formulated to release a drug slowly over a predetermined period of time
Cream Semisolid dosage forms containing one or more drug substances dissolved or dispersed in a water-removable base
Decongestant A drug that reduces swelling in the nasal passage and sinus cavity
Demulcent Agent used topically to soothe irritated tissue in the mouth or throat
Effervescent tablets Tablets compounded with an effervescent salt that releases a gas when placed in water, causing the medication to dissolve rapidly
Electrolytes Salts added to a TPN to correct deficiencies and help meet daily metabolic needs
Elixir A hydroalchoholic solution that contains one or more dissolved drugs and is sweetened and flavored for oral use
Emollient A chemical used to soften and lubricate the skin
Enteric-coated tablets Tablets formulated to pass through the stomach unchanged and dissolve in the intestine
Eutectic mixture Two or more chemicals that change from a solid form to a liquid when mixed
Excipients Ingredients added to a drug in a solid dosage form to create an acceptable tablet or capsule
Expectorant A substance that helps thin mucus
Fat-dissolving tablets Tablets designed to liquefy on the tongue within one minute
Film-coated tablets Tablets covered with a thin layer of polymer designed to dissolve in the gastrointestinal tract
Fungicide Agent that destroys fungus
Gels Ointment bases that are semisolid systems of organic or inorganic particles penetrated by a liquid; also called jellies
Genotoxic agent An agent capable of damaging DNA
Granules Powders that are wetted and broken into coarse particles to increase stability
Hydroalcoholic solution A solution in which alcohol and water are used as vehicles
Implant A drug or device temporarily placed under the skin to release a medication at a controlled rate
Inhalers Aerosolized medications used to treat asthma
Lubricant Agent that softens the skin and reduces friction when a suppository is inserted
Ointments Semisolid formulations containing one or more active ingredients that is applied to the skin or mucous membrane
Paste An ointment base added to a sizeable amount of powder
Protectant An agent that is added to ingredients that may form a eutectic mixture if triturated together
Salicylates Aspirin-containing products or products that contain compounds from the same class as aspirin
Spirits Alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions of volatile substances, often used for flavoring
Suspension A liquid in which particles are not dissolved but are dispersed when shaken
Syrup An oral solution containing a high concentration of sugar
Tincture An alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solution containing vegetable materials or chemicals made by a percolation or maceration process
Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) Intravenous therapy designed to provide nutrition for patients who cannot or will not take nourishment by mouth
Vehicle A liquid used to dissolve a drug for oral or topical administration
Created by: Martinafulgieri