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pulm 4 test


Define P50. Indicated what will happen to the normal value with a shift to the right and left. The partial pressure at hemoglobin is 50 percent saturated with oxygen.A shift to the right will increase the P50 while a shift to the left will decrease the P50 Normal P50 27 mmhg
Co2 diffuses across the A-C membrane how many times faster than O2 20 times faster
What is dead space ventilation? Volume of inspired air that does not reach the alveoli for gas exchange
What is shunted blood? What can cause it? V/Q ratio decreases PAco2 increases PaO2 decreases.CausesCOPD(emphysema, bronchitis, asthma)Restrictive lung disease( Pneumonia, fibrosis, hypoventilation)
What factors can shift the ODC to the left? Hgb has more affinity for O2causes Hgb to hold O2 Alkalosis-Ph increasesCo2 DecreasesTemperature increases2, 3 DP6 decreases
Explain how capillary shunting is refractory to oxygen O2 cannot diffuse capillary blood because of restriction
List the causes of hypoxemia 1. Low alveolar oxygen tension2. Diffusion defects3. Ventilation- perfusion mismatches4. Pulmonary shunting
Which compartment of the blood transports the most Co2 63% bicarbonate
Discuss the Bohr Effect and Haldane Effect Haldane Effect - deoxygenated blood enhances loading of CO2 and oxygenated blood enhances the offload of CO2 Bohr Effect- the effect of PCO2 and Ph on the oxyhemoglobin curve.
What is anatomic shunt? What is the normal value we see? When more O2 does not help refractory to oxygen therapy 3% normal value
List the factors that move the ODC to the right Temperature IncreasePh increasePCO2 increaseDPG increase
In the upright lung is the V/Q high or low at the base Highest at the apex and lowest at the bases
What conditions make RBC concentration of 2,3, DPG decrease Decrease in Ph Store bloodIncrease hypoxiaAnemiaIncrease Ph
What is the first sign of hypoxemia? Tachycardia
If the ventilation decreases but perfusion stays the same has the V/ Q increased or decrease Decrease
Define respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis Respiratory acidosis or acute ventilation failure- hypoventilation caused by narcotics barbiturates decrease Pao2 increase PaCo2Respiratory Alkalosis- POCO2 decrease with hyperventilation Ph increase
Calculate RQ if the tissue consumes 290ml of oxygen and produces 215ml of CO2 CO2/O2 = .74
Define alveolar dead space and anatomical dead space Alveolar is ventilated but not perfused with blood-air is flowing but no gas exchange blood is stopped in a capillary amount of space is unpredictableAnatomical volume of gas in conducting airways equals 1ml/lbs of body wt.
HCO3 to H2CO3 ratio 15:1.Is this acidosis or alkalosis? Acidosis because it is below 20:1
Define physiological dead space Sum of anatomic and alveolar dead space
How much CO2 does the body produce normally at rest in one minute? How much oxygen is consumes normally in one minute? 200mlCO2/min 250mlO2/min
Is a HCO3 to H2CO2 ratio 23:1 acidic or alkalotic? Alkalosis because the 23:1 is higher then 20 making it alkalosis
What happens PaO2 and CaO2 in hypoxic hypoxia? What happens to them in anemia hypoxia? Hypoxic hypoxia- PaO2 decrease CaO2 increaseAnemic hypoxia- normal Pao2 CaO2 decreases
If the ventilation increases but perfusion stays the same what happens to the V/Q ratio? Increases
What is acute ventilatory failure? What are it causes? Increase PaCO2 decrease PaO2CausesCOPDGeneral anesthetics Head trauma Neurological disordersHypoventilation caused by an overdose of narcotics
Discuss the concept of the ion gap. What is the normal range for the ion gap. Is the pt. acidosis caused by fixed acids or by a loss of HCO3Na+=140meq/l Cl=105 meq/l HCO3= 24mq/l9-14meq/l a gap increase 14 represents metabolic acidosis
Be sure you can interpret ABGs Ph 7.35 to 7.45Below 7.35 acidosis Above 7.45 alkalosisPaCo2 35 to 45Below 35 acidosis Above 45 alkalosisHCO3 22 to 26 below 22 acidosis above alkalosis
Causes respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis respiratory acidosis Causes: COPD, general anesthetics, head trauma neurological disorderrespiratory alkalosis Causes: pain aniexty fever brain inflammation hypoxia stimulant drugs
Created by: yayagirl03