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Bio Psych MG

Cerebral Cortex outer layer of grey matter covering cerebrum. 2-3mm thick. formed by gyri (circles/ridge) and sulci (groves/ditch)
Neocortex part of cerebral cortex. has 6 layers that contain different types of neurons (approx 14 bn).
Pyramidal Cell principal output neurons of neocortex. main cell type in layers III and V of neocortex.
Korbian Brodmann (1868-1918) Divided cortex into regions based on cytoarchitecture (means cellular composition), main areas include frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes.
Somatososensory cortex part of cerebral cortex devoted to processing info from somatic (means bodily) receptors.
Motor cortex part of cerebral cortex devoted to the control of bodily movements.
Association cortex Integrated processing of multimodal info.
Frontal lobe responsible for executive functions (problem solving, spontaneity, memory, language, initiation, judgment, impulse control, and social and sexual behavior)
Phineas Gage Piece of train track through frontal lobe during dynamite accident. Casued significant personality change.
Stroop Effect Test using names of colours in different coloured text.
Frontal lobotomy Introduced to the US by Walter Freeman (1895-1972). reduces problem behaviours such as aggression blunted emotional reactivity Treat depression/schizophrenia.
Broca’s area part of frontal lobe responsible for expressive speech and language interpreta
Temporal Lobe auditory, olfactory, visual association (recognition and colour), memory, emotional and social,
Capgras syndrome A condition where patients have difficulty connecting recognition with emotion, think family/friends are imposters.
Prosopagnosia Impaired recognition of familiar faces.
Parietal lobe processing sensory information regarding the location of parts of the body as well as interpreting visual information and processing language and mathematics.
Stroke A blockage or hemorrhage of blood vessels in the brain leading to a decreased supply of oxygenated blood to brain tissues. Middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the most common stroke.
Occipital Lobe Almost entirely devoted to vision. contains primary visual cortex.
Synapse the junction between 2 neurons or between a neuron and a muscle gland.
Neurotransmitter any of about 50 chemical substances by which a neuron communicates with another or with a muscle via a synapse.
Aplysia Californica species of sea slug commonly used in psych as a result of having a small and compact brain. shows simple forms of learning (habituation and sensitization).
Sensitization when a subject is scared, they will react much more to being surprised.
quantal analysis method used to measure the amount of neurotransmitter released between neurons.
synaptic cleft the space between neutrons that are connected via a synapse.
presynaptic neuron the neuron where the signal is initiated.
postsynaptic neuron the neuron that receives the signal.
vesicle small sack that contains thousands of neurotransmitters
action potential electrical signal that excites a presynaptic neuron and causes the vesicles to fuse with the presynaptic membrane and release their contents into the synaptic cleft.
receptors parts of postsynaptic membrane that bind with neurotransmitters that will cause an action to occur in the postsynaptic neuron.
diffusion the process by which neutransmitters drift away after a signal is passed to a postsynaptic neuron.
reuptake neurotransmitter is taken back up into presynaptic neuron.
Eric Kandel Studied neural basis of aplysia and found that learning was cause
David Glanzman Showed that post-synaptic changes in the sensitivity/number of receptors contributed to memory.
Henry Moulasion (patient HM) Underwent temporal lobe surgery (at 29) in an effort to reduce seizures, part of hippocampus and amygdala was removed, caused severe anterograde amnesia (since lesion) as well as retrograde amnesia (prior to lesion)
Declarative memory A form of long-term memory that includes semantic memory (i.e. word meanings) and episodic memory (i.e. last b-day party)
Procedural memory A form of long term memory that is concerned with information about how to carry out certain actions. "knowing how" knowledge (i.e. riding a bike)
perirhinal cortex important for object memory/familiarity, mediates familiarity judgements, damage impairs recognition.
parahippocampal cortex important for contextual memory ("where").
hippocampus located in temporal lobe, important for episodic memory/recollection, also important for emotion, navigation by cognitive maps and learning.
Dual process theory of recognition memory (Brown and Aggleton, 2001) Proposes that the hippocampus mediates recall and the perirhinal cortex mediates familiarity judgements.
Right hippocampus active during spatial memory tasks
Maguire et al. (2002) Taxi drivers have changes in size of hippocampus due to memory of city routes and locations. Correlated with time spent as taxi drivers.
O’Keefe and Dostrovsky (1971) Experimented with rats and found that place cell fire at their peak rate when the animal is in a specific location.
Donald Hebb “Cells that fire together wire together”
Long term potentiation (LTP) is a long-lasting strengthening of synapses between nerve cells. Explains long-term memories. relies upon the opening of glutamate NMDA receptors and the influx of Ca2+ into the post-synaptic neuron for its induction
NMDA receptors glutamate receptor. Blocking NMDA receptor (AP5 -- an antagonist of the NMDA receptor) blocks LTP induction and impairs spatial memory.
Amyloid Cascade Hypothesis Theory stating that deposition of the amyloid-β peptide in the brain is a central event in Alzheimer's disease.
Alzheimer's Disease Associated with placques and tangles which eventually destroy brain cells.
amyloid-β impairs synaptic plasticity and memory deficits ---> alzheimer's disease.
Electroencephalography test that measures and records the electrical activity of your brain, method used to study sleep,
Richard canon (1875) First person to record electric currents of the brain.
Hans Berger (1929) Discovered electroencephalography, showed that it varies between sleep and waking.
Aserinsky and Kleitman (1953) showed that sleep could be further differentiated into 2 distinct states (REM and non-REM sleep)
Adenosine builds up in brain when you're awake. Low levels just after sleeping and high levels after being awake for a long time. Generated by metabolic activity.
amygdala part of brain responsible emotion. Active during dreaming.
reticular formation regulates he transition between sleep and wakefulness.
pons part of brain that helps initiate REM sleep.
Rapid-eye-movement (REM) Sleep stage of sleep occurring in progressively lengthening episodes roughly every 90 mins
Functions of sleep Clearance of toxins and memory consolidation
ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) part of hypothalamus that promotes sleep and is thought to inhibit the major ascending monoaminergic arousal systems during sleep. lesions of the VLPO cause insomnia.
Narcolepsy rare neurological condition that affects the brain's ability to regulate the normal sleep-wake cycle
Insomnia sleep disorder where patients have trouble sleeping (i.e. difficulty falling asleep, or staying asleep as long as desired)
Created by: lachlanbramley