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# Research Final

Question | Answer |
---|---|

achievement tests | tests used to measure knowledge in a specific content area, such as math or reading |

standardized tests | tests with standard instructions and scoring procedures which are used for all administrations of the test |

researcher/teacher-made tests | tests designed for a specific purpose with specific scoring and instructions for that purpose |

norm-referenced tests | a test in which the individual's performance is compared with the results of a larger group of peers |

criterion-referenced tests | a test that measures mastery of specific definitions of performance for an individual in a particular content domain |

stem | the leading part of a multiple-choice question |

alternatives | the variety of answers available for a multiple-choice question |

distracters | answers to a multiple-choice question that are attractive enough that a person who does not know the right answer might find them plausible |

item analysis | a process of evaluating multiple-choice items by using difficulty level and the ability of the item to discriminate or differentiate between group performances |

difficulty index | the percentage of test takers who correctly answer a multiple-choice item |

discrimination index | an index that describes how well a multiple-choice item differentiates between high scores and low scores on a test |

attitude tests | tests that assess an individual's feelings or preferences about objects, events, and people |

thurstone scale | a method used in constructing attitude test which all of the items assigned an attitude score, it is made up of nearly equal intervals for individuals to agree or disagree with various statements |

method of equal-appearing intervals | thurstone scale |

likert scale | a method used in attitude scales that requires the individual to agree or disagree to a set of statements using a five-point scale |

method of summated ratings | likert scale |

personality tests | tests that assess stable individual behavior patterns |

projective tests | personality test that ask the participant to respond to an ambiguous stimulus, it is assumed that participants will "project" their worldview onto the stimulus |

structured tests | tests that contain items with fixed responses |

duration recording | recording behavior based on the amount of time it lasts |

frequency recording | recording behavior based on the incidence or frequency of the occurrence of a particular behavior |

interval recording/time sampling | recording behavior that occurs during a particular interval of time |

continuous recording | recording behavior on a continuous basis |

questionnaires | sets of structured, focused questions that employ a self-reporting, paper-and-pencil format |

raw data | data that are unorganized |

data collection form | a form used to record raw data and often used to facilitate entry into the computer |

optical scoring sheet | a specifically printed scoring sheet that can be read and scored by computer |

optical scanner | a special computer that reads optical scoring sheets |

coding | using numbers to represent data |

descriptive statistics | simple measure of a distribution's central tendency and variability |

inferential statistics | procedures that allow inferences to be made from a sample to the population from which the sample was drawn |

distribution of scores | the general shape of data which includes a mean, median, and mode |

mode | the most frequently occurring score |

variability | the spread of scores in a distribution |

standard deviation | average distance of each score in a distribution from the mean |

variance | a measure of the degree of dispersion or variability in a distribution of scores, the standard deviation squared |

normal curve | the distribution of a set of scores such that it is characterized by being symmetrical about the mean; the mode, mean, and median being equal, and the tails asymptotic |

standard scores | scores that have been derived to create a common reference point and the same standard deviation to allow for easy comparison |

z score | a standard score based on a distribution with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1 |

central limit theorem | the theorem in inferential statistics which states that regardless of the shape of the population distribution, repeated samples from it will produce means that are normally distributed |

statistical significance | the degree of risk you are willing to take that you will regret a null hypothesis when it is actually true |

type I error | same as the level of statistical significance, the level of risk you are willing to take that the null hypothesis is rejected when it is true |

level of significance | the type I error rate or the probability that a null hypothesis will be rejected when it is false |

type II error | the acceptance of a false null hypothesis, the probability that a type II error will occur can be reduced by increasing the size of the sample |

test of statistical significance | the application of a statistical procedure to determine whether observed differences exceed the critical value, indicating that chance is not the most attractive explanation for the results |

obtained value | the value obtained by applying a statistical test of significance |

critical value | the tabled value at which point the null hypothesis cannot be accepted; the minimum value you would expect the test statistic to yield if the null hypothesis is true |

degrees of freedom | the leeway for variation a statistical value has; they help determine the critical value of the test statistic |

factor analysis | the value obtained by applying a statistical test of significance |

meta-analysis | a procedure that allows for the examination of trends and patterns that may exist in many different groups in many different studies |

effect size | the notion that the stronger the effects of a treatment, the smaller the required sample size |

survey research | a type of research that uses a written oral survey forum to as its primary tool for the collection of information |

interview | a method of collecting data that is similar to an oral questionnaire. An interview can be informal and flexible or structured and focused |

face-sheet information | the first or top sheet of a survey that is usually included and used to collect demographic information |

structured/close-ended questions | interview questions that have a clear and apparent focus and a clearly called for answer |

unstructured/open-ended questions | interview questions that provide a broad opportunity for the participant to respond |

interviewer bias | bias introduced when the interviewer subtly influences the interviewee’s responses |

correlational research | a method of research used to determine relationships between two or more variables |

pearson product moment correlation | an index of the relationship between variables |

scattergram | a plot of scores or data points which indicates the relationship between variables |

coefficient of alienation | the amount of variance that is unaccounted for in the relationship between variables |

developmental research | methods of research that examine changes over time |

qualitative research | research that examines phenomena within the cultural and social context in which it takes place |

documentation | information or evidence in the form of media (paper, tape, data) which helps support an argument |

archival records | data associated with a certain event which has been stored under conditions where they are maintained, preserved, and made assessable to researchers |

physical artifacts | objects that relate to a particular period of time and/or phenomenon under study |

direct observation | activity that includes observation of behavior in the environment in which the behavior or outcome occurs |

participant observation | activity where individuals who take part in an experiment or a research project have the potential to affect the outcomes of research |

focus group | a group of participants who are asked to make a judgment about to a particular event or object |

case study | a descriptive research method used to study an individual in a unique setting or situation in an intense manner |

ethnography | a study of a culture or subculture |

historiography | another name for historical research |

secondary sources | secondhand sources for historical data, such as newspaper clippings and summary statistics |

external criticism | the evaluative criterion used in historical research to establish the authenticity or validity of sources |

authenticity | genuineness of a historical data source |

internal criticism | an evaluative criterion used in historical research to establish the accuracy or trustworthiness of a data source |

accuracy | a measure of the degree of trustworthiness of a historical data source |

true experimental research method | research in which a cause and effect is unambiguously tested |

experimental group | the group that receives treatment |

control group | the group that does not receive the treatment but may have the other condition |

causal-comparative designs | research in which subjects are assigned to groups based on a characteristic beyond the control of the experimenter, such as gender and age, also another name for post hoc or quasi-experimental research |

pre-experimental designs | research designs that are characterized by a lack of random selection and assignment |

one-shot case study design | a type of experimental design in which one group receives only one test |

one-group pretest posttest design | a type of experimental design in which one group receives both a pretest and posttest |

pretest posttest control group design | a true experimental design with a high degree of internal validity |

posttest-only control group design | a true experimental design with a high degree of internal validity in which posttests are the only measures taken |

solomon four-group design | a traditional experimental design in which there are four different groups of participants, and many different questions can be answered simultaneously with some relatively simple comparisons |

internal validity | the accuracy in concluding that the outcome of an experiment is due to the independent variable |

external validity | the extent to which the results of an experiment can be generalized |

history | uncontrolled outside influences on subjects during the course of an experiment |

maturation | changes caused by natural development, which may threaten the internal validity of an experiment |

selection | a threat to the internal validity of a study based on a biased selection of participants |

testing | a threat to the internal validity of a study based on the sensitization of the group owing to the administration of a pretest |

instrumentation | those conditions within a testing situation, other than the abilities of the subject, which might affect performance |

regression | the tendency for extreme scores to move toward more typical levels of performance when retested |

follow-up studies | studies that use the databases of previous research as a method for the collection of additional data |

mortality | a threat to the internal validity of a study based on the dropping out or removal of participants from the experiment |

multiple treatment interference | a threat to internal validity when several treatments occur simultaneously |

reactive arrangements | the hawthorne effect |

hawthorne effect | the effect that knowledge of the experiment by the participants can have on the outcomes |

experimenter effects | a threat to the internal validity of study whereby the presence of an experimenter can change the effectiveness of the treatment |

pretest sensitization | when the experience of taking a pretest is related to the effectiveness of the independent variable |

extraneous variables | a variable that has an unpredictable impact on the dependent variable |

matching | a method in which participants are matched on similar characteristics to help account for unexplained variance |

analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) | a statistical tool that equalizes any initial differences that may exist |

quasi-experimental research | research that is done when groups are preassigned to “treatments,” such as gender, social class, and neighborhood. Also known as post hoc research |

post hoc | research that is done “after the fact” or after treatments have been assigned to groups. Also known as quasi-experimental research |

nonequivalent control group design | a pre-experimental design in which groups are not equivalent at the beginning of the research and which generally lacks a suitable degree of internal validity |

static group comparison design | a pre-experimental design with limited internal validity |

single-subject research design | observing one subject over a variety of behaviors |

baseline | level of behavior associated with a subject before an experiment begins |

longitudinal method | a method of developmental research that assesses changes in behavior in one group of subjects at more than one point in time |

cross-sectional method | a method of developmental research used to examine age differences rather than age changes |