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EMR LCA Review

Electricity Magnetism Radioactivity LCA Review

TermDefinition
CHARGING THROUGH CONDUCTION occurs when electrons move from an object to another by direct contact
CHARGING THROUGH INDUCTION occurs when an uncharged metal object are rearranged without direct contact with a charged object
CHARGING THROUGH FRICTION occurs when electrons are “wiped” from one object to another
SERIES CIRCUIT single loop circuit in which all loads share the same current
PARALLEL CIRCUIT a circuit in which the parts are joined in branches so that the potential difference across each part is the same (don't share the same current, but DO share the same voltage)
OHM'S LAW The ratio of voltage to current is a constant for each material. The ratio is the resistance. If resistance increases, voltage decreases
CALCULATING POWER: A toaster draws approximately 10A of current. A home receives 120v at each electrical outlet. What is the power of the toaster? 1200 watts
CALCULATING RESISTANCE: A circuit has a 36v battery and 9A of current. What's the resistance? 4 ohms
CALCULATING CURRENT: An object has a resistance of 20 Ω is attached to a circuit with a 10v battery. Calculate the current in the closed circuit. .5 amperes
CALCULATING VOLTAGE: What is the voltage if the current is 2A and the resistance is 12 Ω? 24v
CIRCUIT BREAKER switch that automatically opens if he current is too high; a strip of metal warms up, bends, and opens the switch
FUSE thin strip of metal that melts if the current is too high; the circuit is broken and the charges stop flowing
OPEN CIRCUIT a gap between conducting material and electric charges do not flow
CLOSED CIRCUIT 2 pieces of conducting material connect and electric charges flow
SHORT CIRCUIT charges do not go to one or more loads; can be caused by broken wires, water, overload
ELECTRIC FORCE the force of attraction or repulsion on a charged particle due to an electric field Greater the charge, greater the force; closer the charges, greater the force
ELECTRIC FIELD the space around a charged object in which another charged object experiences an electric field
MAGNET any material that attracts iron or things made of iron
ELECTROMAGNET a solenoid wrapped around an iron core The magnetic field is the field of the solenoid PLUS the field of the magnetized core; increase strength by increasing loops Has a field ONLY when electric current is running through it
MAGNETIC FIELD the region around a magnet in which magnetic forces can act; lines are closest at poles and therefore, strongest at poles; expressed as a vector with both magnitude AND direction
MAGNETIC FORCE the force of attraction or repulsion generated by moving or spinning electrical charges on each other
ELECTRIC GENERATOR uses electromagnetic induction to change mechanical energy into electrical energy
ELECTRIC MOTOR a device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy
ALPHA PARTICLE Alpha particle (α) is made up of 2 protons and 2 neutrons It has a mass number of 4 and a charge of 2+ Same as the nucleus of a helium atom
BETA PARTICLE Beta particle (β ) is an electron (-1) Mass number = 0 because have a mass of almost zero Nucleus becomes a nucleus of a different element and both mass number and charge are conserved A neutron breaks into a proton and an electron
GAMMA RADIATION Very high energy light Released during alpha and beta decay No mass, no charge
HALF-LIFE The amount of time it takes for one-half of the nuclei of a radioactive isotope to decay
CALCULATE THE AGE OF A SAMPLE AFTER 5 HALF-LIVES IF 1 HALF-LIFE TAKES 6,000 YEARS. THE SAMPLE IS 30,000 YEARS OLD
FISSION the process by which a large nucleus splits into 2 small nuclei, releases energy, and becomes more stable
FUSION 2 or more nuclei that have small masses combine (fuse) to form a larger nucleus
APPLICATION OF NUCLEAR ENERGY Cost less to run than fossil fuel plants Do not release harmful atmospheric gases Helps fossil fuel supplies last longer
APPLICATION OF RADIOACTIVITY Tracers- radioactive elements whose paths can be followed- used in medical diagnosis Treat and prevent illness Detect defects in structures Space probes
DANGERS OF RADIOACTIVITY Radiation sickness- exposure to radiation- can cause fatigue, loss of appetite, hair loss, destruction of blood cells and death Burns Weaken metal Nuclear waste Nuclear accidents
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION the process of creating a current in a circuit by changing a magnetic field
PROS OF FISSION Cost less to run than fossil fuel plants Do not release harmful atmospheric gases Helps fossil fuel supplies last longer
PROS OF FUSION less accident prone, products not radioactive, more isotopes, more energy released
CONS OF FUSION energy for your home cannot be generated (yet) using nuclear fusion because high temps needed and it takes more energy to make and hold plasma than is generated by fusion
CONS OF FISSION High initial cost Nuclear accidents can put large amounts of radioactive waste into the atmosphere Nuclear waste lasts thousands of years, must be stored securely while it breaks down Supply of uranium is limited
WHAT DETERMINES STABILITY IN AN ATOM? NEUTRON:PROTON RATIO
Created by: suzannewilliams