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Def of soil Soil is the thin ,Ayer of loose material that covers the earths surface. Formed over a long period of time by process of denudation.
Soil composition 45% mineral matter 25% air 25% water 4% humus 1% living organisms
Mineral matter Consists of broken down material left by the weathering and erosion of rocks. These particles contain nutrients that help the plants to grow.
Water Helps plants to grow. Dissolves the minerals and nutrients in the soil which allows plants to absorb them through their routes
Air Found in spaces between soil particles. It is essential for plant growth as it supplies oxygen and nitrogen. Air space also allows water to pass through the soil.
Humus Dark jelly like substance that is rich in nutrients. It is formed by the remains of dead plants, leaves and creatures which are broken down and decay(humilification). L.O mix this through the soil. Helps bind soil together and increase fertility.
Living organisms Burrow through the soil allowing water and air to pass through. This helps mix soil. M.O such as fungi and bacteria help break down dead plants and creatures to form humus-increases soil fertility.
Factors of soil formation Climate, parent rock, vegetation, living organisms, relief, time, human activity.
Climate Rainfall and temp determine rate of weathering and erosion of P.R Cold areas-freeze thaw action-slowly-thin soil Hot areas-chemical weathering-rapidly-deep soil Wet areas-leaching washes nutrients to deep into soil-infertile
Parent rock Type of rock influences development of soil. Slowly-poor,thin,acidic-granite Quickly-deep,rich,fertile-limestone
Living organisms M.O break down veg and creatures in soil- forms humus Earth worms and others burrow through soil and mix humus in Also allows air and water to pass through
Relief Or shape of land has an impact on soil Highland-wetter-leaching-infertile Lowland-deeper-well drained-more fertile-more plantlife-humus-ferrtile
Time Length if time it takes for soil to develop depends on the type of rock in area. It can take 400 yrs for 1cm of soil
Human activity Can influence make up and quality of soil Ploughing,irrigation,fertilisers can make soil more fertile. Removal of veg and overuse of soil can strip it of its nutrients-less fertile- can lead to soil erosion
Soil profile O H/plant litter-surface-dead plant material(leaves and twigs) A H/topsoil-dark brown-highest humus content-most L.O B H/subsoil-lighter than A-more mineral matter and stones(closer) C H/parent rock-consists of rock particles and solid bedrock
Soil processes Leaching-wet climate where there is excess water - excess water washes nutrients and humus through AH -minerals gather and harden into crust(hard pan) -hp is impermeable so water cannot pass-waterlog inferti
Soil processes Erosion- removal of soil by water,wind and human activity such as Deforestation, over grazing,over cultivation.
Soil texture Sand-dry,light,gritty-<70% sand-well drained-cause soil to lose nutrients and suffer when drought Clay-heavy as clay particles prevent water passing through-waterlogging-hard to plough-pastoral farming Loam-sand and clay-well drained,retain minerals....
Brown earth Formed in areas where there was deciduous forests Low precipitation level Dark brown-rich organic humus Fertile tops soil-good for growing crops Most common soil in Ireland
Human interference-deforestation Veg binds soil together,absorbs rainfall and controls surf run off Decaying veg retains nutrients to soil as it forms humus Removal exposes soil to elements(wind,water)-soil erosion Can be flooding, no veg cover in low lying areas Soil go down by rain
Solutions to human activities Reaforestation, control felling
Created by: Orlaf



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