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Phat 142 Mod 6th

T. Scott Chp 1 - History of Pharmacy

Who is the "father of medicine"? Hippocrates ---- (medicine & pharmacy) ---- 200 plants and dozen minerals
Who is the "father of botany"? Theophrastus -----(botanist) ---- Greek philosopher
Who is the "father of pharmacology"? Dioscorides ----(botanist & pharmacologist) --- "De Materia Medica"-Dioscorides Herbal ---600 plants & 90 minerals
Who is the "father of Chinese pharmaceutics"? Shen-Nung
Who is the "father of toxicology"? Mithradates
Who is Fabiola? wealthy woman and hospital benifactor
Who is Claudis Galen? Greek-born physician living in Rome. Pharmacist, taught medicine & pharmacy. Wrote "On The Art Of Healing"
Hippocrates homeostasis-the attainment and retainment of equilibrium in the body through appropriate drugs and diet. Disease resulted from body fluid(blood, phlegm, and yellow and black bile)
In his writing the word for drugs is? pharmakon - defined as a purifying remedy
Allopathy a concept employed by the Greeks and in common medical practice in the Western world, treats symptoms and diseases with drugs that restore health by causing the opposite effect.
Homeopathy treats health problems with very dilute substances that cause the same effect as the symptom.
Theophrastus study of plants (botany). Classified plants by leaves, roots, seeds, and stems
Pharmacognosy the science that deals with the medicinal ingredients in living plants
Dioscorides added to the work of Hippocrates.
Incorporated into herbal which gave plant/mineral descriptions, instructions for growing and preservation, dosage, medicinal uses, and side effects. Tested these on the army .
Claudius Galen his principles, derived from Hippocrates. Used prasutues as nurses.
pharmacotherapy treatment of disease with medications
Moses ben Maimon (Maimonides) a Spanish rabbi and scientist. Wrote the "Prayer of Maimonides" or the prayer of pharmacist.
St. Basil the Great in the 4th century influenced hospital design
Bishop Landry founded the Hotel Dieu in Paris in A.D.660 on the Seine River in Paris
Cosmas and Damian Cosmas was a physician; Damian, his twin brother, practiced pharmacy
monasteries dwellings for persons under religious vows. Served the sick monks and persons in special care. Contributed to health service by growing, preserving, and preparing herbal medicines and retaining and printing drug information
Genesis mentions myrrh(a remedy used as an appetite stimulant)
carminative a medicine that relieves intestinal gas and skin protectants with healing properties
frankincense(olibanum) gum resin mentioned in the books of Exodus, Ezra, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Song of Solomon.
Garlic (Numbers 11:5) reduce blood pressure, lower cholesterol, and inhibit the growth of cancer cells
Aloe (John 19:39) ingredient in te compound benzoin tincture
Other items used coriander, myrrh, almond, and anise
Pope Sixtus V authorized the red cross as a special insignia designating the special service provided by the order in the care of patients,many with diseases
Clay Tables of Mesopotamia in Iraq and Persian Gulf region with 800 tablets contained materia medica information. contained 500 remedies from plant, mineral, and other sources. Also the Code of Hammurabi
Pen T'sao "the botanical basis of pharmacy" describes more than 1,000 plants and 11,000 prescriptions handed down by oral tradition from Shen-Nung
"Tao te Ching" means (The Way)
Drugs used in early China ephedra, cassia,rhubarb, camphor, and ginseng
"Yin" drugs cold and wet
"Yang" drugs warm and dry
"Red" drugs treated heart conditions
"Yellow" drugs treated liver problems
antidotes (Mithradates VI) a remedy for conunteracting a poison
psychiatric mentally ill
The Minhaj (Handbook for the Apothecary Shop) Arabia and Persia stated that a pharmacist "ought to have deep religious convictions, consideration for others, especially the poor and needy, a sense of responsibility and be careful and God-fearing."
Charaka's writings (India) including cinnamon, cardamom, ginger, pepper, aconite, and licorice
Mercury was used for antiseptic in Mercurochrome and Merthiolate
Egyptian Ebers papyrus parchment scroll found in Egypt by George Ebers is one of 11 medical scrolls that preserve knowledge of early Egyptian medicine.
700 drugs are mentioned, with formulas for more than 800 remedies. These drugs were prepared in a magically correct way and then said a prescribed benediction over them
Al-Mansur hospital located in Cairo, Egypt, had special wards for particular diseases, outpatient clinics, convalescent areas, diet kitchens, and large medical library.
Wars accelerate the need for health care. Crusaders brought personal and financial support to the hospitals in the areas of conquest
Military hospitals functioned during the Revolutionary War in New York(Manhattan),Pennsylvania(Lititz), Massachusetts, and other areas of battle
Louisa May Alcott served as a volunteer and observed the wanton conditions of poor sanitation, the depressing environment, and patient and staff misery at the Union Hospital in Georgetown. The book was called "Hospital Sketches
The book "Hosptial Sketches" influenced President Abraham Loncoln to establish the U.S. Sanitary Commission. Lincoln also requested the Sisters of Charity to care for the wounded on the battlefields in the Civil War
Paracelsus(Swiss) born Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombast von Hohenheim, the Swiss alchemist changed his name to indicate his super
The book "Hosptial Sketches" influenced President Abraham Loncoln to establish the U.S. Sanitary Commission. Lincoln also requested the Sisters of Charity to care for the wounded on the battlefields in the Civil War
Paracelsus(Swiss) born Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombast von Hohenheim, the Swiss alchemist changed his name to indicate his superiority over the great herbalist, Celsus
Magna Carta of Pharmacy pharmacy was declared an independent profession separate from medicine through the official Edict of 1231. Emperor Frederick II of Germany was the author of this edit.
dispensatories a treatise on the quality and composition of medicine.
Nuremberg, Germany the first legal pharmacopoeia
Who discovered Digoxin? William Withering
Who discovered salicin in willow bark and nicotine in tabacco? Johannes Buchner
Who established the U.S. Sanitary Commission, and why? President Abraham Lincoln, because of "Hospital Sketches" written by Louisa May Alcott
Who prepared salts of morphine? Frederick Serturner
Who discovered the sulfa-drug, Protonsil? Gerhard Domagk
Who discovered iodine? Bernard Courtois
Who discovered arsenic, chlorine, and glycerine? Karl Scheele
Who discovered small pox vaccine? Edward Jenner
Who discovered injectable vaccine for Polio? Jonas Salk
Who discovered oral vaccine for Polio? Albert Sabin
The earliest examples of healing centers can be found in which country? Greece
What is the name of the first antibiotic that was effective against tubercle bacillus, the infective agent in the tuberculosis? streptomycin
Myrrh is mentioned in the book of Genesis as a remedy for what? Loss of appetite
Which country presently leads in setting standards for natural remedies? Germany
What was first antibiotic used in therapy? penicillin
What disease killed almost one-third of the inhabitants of Europe between 1347 and 1350? Black Plague
Leafy plants used as a medicinal or flavoring agent are known as? herbs
The first book of drug standards published in the U.S.? U.S. Pharmacopoeia(USP) and the National Formulary(NF) to form the USP-NF
Created by: J.Lilly



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