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gen psych exam4

social psych branch of psych that studies how a person's THOUGHTS, FEELINGS, and BEHAVIOR are influenced by the presence of other people and by the social/physical environment
sense of self sense of who you are in relation to other people as influenced by SOICAL, CULTURAL, and PSYCHOLOGICAL experiences
social cognition mental processes people use to make sense of their social environments
social influence effect of situational factors and other people on an individual's behavior
person perception mental processes we use to form judgments and draw conclusions about the characteristics and motives of other people
social categorization mental processes of categorizing people into groups/social categories on the basis of their shared characteristics
processes of social categorization explicit cognition: deliberate judging implicit cognition: automatic judging
schema outline or model / mental framework
"what is beautiful is good" the stereotype that prettier people are better
attribution mental process of inferring the causes of people's behavior / explanation made for certain behavior
fundamental attribution error tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal/personal characteristics while ignoring environmental/situational factors -- BAD DRIVERS
conformity adjusting opinions, judgments, or behaviors so that they match those of a social group
obedience performance of a behavior in response to direct command
Asch's Experiment different-length-lines test with planted "confederates" -- most participants went along with wrong answers
Milgram's Experiment "teacher" administering shocks to planted "learner" upon incorrect answers -- most "teachers" continued with shocks when told to, even through guilt
influences of conformity desire to fit in
influences of obedience authority
Zimbardo's Experiment stanford prison experiment lasted only 6 days out of planned 14 because "guards" took the fake authority too seriously
prosocial behavior any behavior that helps another person, no matter the underlying motive
altruism helping another person with no expectation of personal reward
Kitty Genovese Case woman stabbed to death in NYC outside of her apartment building while neighbors watched from inside thinking "someone else will help"
bystander effect the more people are there to witness something, the less likely the victim is to be helped
increases likelihood of bystanders helping good moods / preexisting feeling of guilt / seeing others willing to help / knowing how to help / relationship
decreases likelihood of bystanders helping diffusion of responsibility / big cities / vague situations / costs outweighs benefits
influences of group on individual social loafing (not helping in a group), social striving (working harder in a group), social facilitation (enhanced dominant natural response - good singing), de-individuation (doing wrong things when surrounded by people - KKK)
psychopathology scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and development of psychological disorders
psychological disorder a pattern of behavioral and psychological symptoms that causes significant personal DISTRESS, DEVIANT behavior, and DYSFUNCTION
DSM-5 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- describes the specific symptoms and diagnostic guidelines for psychological disorders
Rosenhan's Study sent sane people into an insane asylum to see how long it would take for them to be released
medical model mental illness have an actual physical cause, not demons
biopsychosocial model biological influences + psychological influences + social/cultural influences = psychological disorder
anxiety disorder extreme anxiety is the main diagnostic feature and causes significant disruptions in the person's cognitive, behavioral, or interpersonal functioning
PTSD frequent recollection of trauma, avoidance of triggering stimuli, increased anxiety, negative alterations in cognition and mood
OCD OBSESSIONS - repetitive thoughts // COMPULSIONS - overt actions and covert in-head actions
depressive disorders mood disorder characterized by extreme and persistent DESPONDENCY, WORTHLESSNESS, and HOPELESSNESS / emotional, behavioral, cognitive, physical symptoms
antidepressant medication prescription drugs that are used to reduce symptoms associated with major depressive disorder // selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) -- prozac, zoloft, paxil and dual re-uptake inhibitors -- effexor, cymbalta
electroconvulsive therapy biomedical therapy used primarily in the treatment of major depressive disorder that involves electrically inducing a brief brain seizure
bipolar disorder mood disorder involving periods of incapacitating depression alternating with periods of extreme euphoria and excitement
treatment for bipolar disorder antidepressants and mood stabilizers (lithium)
schizophrenia ability to function is impaired by severely distorted beliefs, perceptions, and thought processes // "different reality"
positive symptoms of schizophrenia EXCESS: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thoughts/speech/behavior
negative symptoms of schizonphrenia REDUCTION: flat affect, alogia, avolition, catatonia
treatment of schizophrenia antipsychotic medications/neuroleptics (chlorpromazine - thorazine)