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Physical Science

FSA Review

What are physical properties? Properties of matter that you can observe without destroying the material.
What are some examples of physical properties? density (how squished the particles are), thermal and electrical conductivity (how easily heat/electricity moves through), solubility (how easily it dissolves), magnetic properties; melting and boiling points (temperature that it boils/melts)
What happens to physical properties when you change the amount of the sample? Nothing. No matter how much or how little of the material , the physical properties ALWAYS stay the same.
What is density and how does it affect matter? Density is a measure of the the amount of matter in a certain space. Materials with higher density sinks and materials with lower densities float.
What are the formula for density, volume and mass? mass= density x volume, volume=mass/density, density=mass/volume
What is the relationship between solvent, solutions, solute, and saturation? A solution is a liquid mixture in which a solute(solid) gets easily dissolved in a solvent (liquid). The solution is saturated when no more solute can be dissolved in the solvent.
What is the relationship between atoms, elements and compounds? Elements are atoms that have a specific number of protons(+). Elements combine to produce compounds that make up all of the living and nonliving things.
Describe how atoms move in solids, liquids and gases. Solids-atoms vibrate in place Liquid-atoms slide past each other Gas-atoms move very fast and randomly.
How are elements arranged in the periodic table? Elements are arranged based on similarities in their properties. If elements are in the same period(across) or group(up and down) then they have similar properties.
What is an atom? What subatomic particles make up an atom? The atom is the smallest unit of an element and are composed of subatomic particles. The subatomic particles are proton(+) , neutrons(neutral), electrons(-).
What are the size, location, and charge of the subatomic particles? Protons- large (same size as neutrons), positive charge, located in the nucleus. Neutron- large(same size as proton), no charge (neutral), located in the nucleus. Electron- Very very small, negative charge , located in electron cloud.
What is the difference between pure substances, mixtures, and solutions? Pure substances are made of only one type of element or compound. Mixtures are made up of different elements, different compounds or elements mixed with compounds. Solutions occur when one substance DISSOLVES in another.
What does pH tell you about a substance? The more hydrogen n ions in a substance the lower the pH. Acids have low pH and high concentration of hydrogen ions. Bases have high pH and low concentration of hydrogen ions.
What is the pH range for acids and bases? Acids pH less than 7 Bases pH in greater than 7.
What is the difference between chemical and physical changes? Chemical changes create new substances , physical changes do not.
Tell whether each of the following is a chemical or physical change: burning, cutting, tearing, reaction, melting, boiling, rusting tarnish Chemical: burning, rusting, tarnish, reactions Physical: cutting, tearing, boiling, melting
When a substance goes through a chemical or physical change, how does the total mass of the products (end) compare to the reactants that you started with? The total mass stays the same. The mass of the reactants equals the mass of the products.
Why might it seem that the mass decreased after a chemical reaction? It may seem like the mass decreased after a chemical reaction if the system is open and gases are able to escape.
How does temperature affect chemical changes? Increase temperature will make a chemical reaction go faster. Think about cooking. If you want your food to cook faster you increase the temperature of the oven or stove.
How can we classify the radiation received from the sun? The radiation from the sun is classified based on it's wavelength.
List the radiation from the sun in order from longest to shortest wavelength . Radio, microwave, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, x-ray, gamma Raging , martians,, invaded, roy g. biv, using, x-ray, guns
List the radiation from the sun in order from lowest to highest frequency. Radio, microwave, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, x-ray, gamma Raging , martians,, invaded, roy g. biv, using, x-ray, guns
What happens when waves move through different materials? When waves move through different materials they change speed.
Differentiate between reflection, refraction, absorption? Reflection: light or sound bounces off materials Refraction: light orsound bends because it speeds up or slows down Absorption: Light or sound is taken in by material.
What is the difference between energy transformations and energy transfer? In a n energy transformation on type of energy is change into another. In a energy transfer energy moves from one place to another.
Describe the type of mechanical energy, potential or kinetic, that a ball has a) sitting at the top of a hill b) rolling down a hill c) rolling up a hill a) All potential energy b) potential changing to kinetic c) kinetic changing to potential
What can and cannot happen to energy? Energy CAN be transferred or transformed. Energy CANNOT be created or destroyed.
What are the types of energy and examples? Chemical (Battery, Burning anything) Mechanical (Motion) Electrical (wires) Sound (music) Radiation (light) Thermal (heat)
Describe how heat flows. Heat flows from HOT to COLD until they reach the SAME TEMPERATURE.
What are two things that can happen when you add or remove heat? Adding heat to or removing heat from a system may result in a temperature change and possibly a change of state.
Differentiate between conduction, convection or radiation. Conduction: Heat flow through touch. Convection: When heat causes matter to rise and fall. Radiation: Heat moves through air or space.
Contact or Non-Contact Force? Gravitational, Normal, Friction, Tension, Magnetic, electrical, Applied Contact- Normal, Friction, Tension, applied Non-Contact: Electrical, magnetic, gravitational
What is the Law Gravitation? every object exerts gravitational force on every other object and that the force depends on how much mass the objects have and how far apart they are.
What is the difference between mass and weight? Weight is the pull of gravity on an object that changes depending on the mass of the planet and the distance between objects. Mass is the amount of matter that makes up an object. Does not change based on the mass of the planet.
How does an unbalanced force affect an objects motions? An unbalanced force causes objects to speed up, slow down, or change directions. It can change speed, or direction of motion, or both.
What is positive acceleration and negative acceleration? Positive acceleration- means to speed up Negative acceleration-means to slow dow
Created by: msings