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Ch 11 Vocab Genetics

Heredity The passing of traits from parents to offspring. Example: Tall parents have tall children
Genetics The study of how traits are passed from parents to offspring
Dominant One genetic factor that blocks another genetic factor
Recessive A genetic factor that is blocked by the dominant factor
Gene A section of DNA chromosome that has the genetic information for one trait Example: Dimples
Allele A different form of a gene.
Phenotype How a trait appears or is expressed
Genotype The alleles of all the genes on an organism's chromosome that controls the organisms phenotype Example: Hh hh HH
Homozygous a genotype in which the the two alleles of a gene are the SAME HH dominant hh recessive
Heterozygous A genotype in which the two alleles of a gene are DIFFERENT Hh Hybrid
Punnett Square A model that is used to show the probability of all possible genotypes and phenotypes of offspring
Incomplete Dominance An inheritance pattern where an offspring's phenotype is a combination of the parents phenotype
Codominance In inheritance pattern where both alleles can be observed in a phenotype
Polygenic inheritance an inheritance pattern in which multiple genes determine the phenotype of a trait Example: Hair color, eye color skin color
DNA Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, it is an organism's genetic material Double helix
Nucleotide A molecule made of a nitrogen base, of sugar and a phosphate group
Replication The process of copying a DNA molecule to make another DNA molecule ATAGCA GTATCGT
RNA Ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid that carried the code for making proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
Translation The process of making proteins from RNA RNA->Protein
Transcription The process of making MRNA from DNA
Mutation A permanent change in the sequence of DNA or a chromosome