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Radiation Protection

Radiation Protection, Physics, and Radiobiology

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION VELOCITY 186,000 miles per second pg.229
WAVELENGTH distance between two consecutive wave crest pg.229
FREQUENCY number of cycles per second (Hz) = 1 cycle per sec pg.229
Natural Background 37% radon and thor on gases 5% space radiation 5% internal sources 3% terrestrial sources pg.231
PRODUCTION OF XRAYS Bremsstrahlung "braking" electron pulled off course by positive nucleus, loss of energy causes X-ray pg.232
PRODUCTION OF XRAYS Characteristic Radiation High speed electron encounters tungsten atom and ejects K-shell electron. Xray is formed when higher energy electron fills K shell. pg.232
Relationship between Wavelength and Frequency Inversely related pg.234
Speed of light = Frequency X Wavelength pg.234
Ionization is caused by... High energy, short wavelength electromagnetic radiations that break apart electrically neutral atoms pg.234
Most common ionization interactions with tissue cells Compton scatter and photoelectric effect pg.234
Exposure dose Depends on beam attenuation and on which type of interaction occurs between xr
Early effects of radiation Appear a short time after exposure Usually as a result of high dose in short period of time should not be seen in diagnostic radiology Depends on beam attenuation and on which type of interaction occurs between X-ray photons and tissue. pg.236
Late effects Can appear years after exposure: Carcinogenesis Cataractogenesis Embryologic effct lifespan shortening Depends on beam attenuation and on which type of interaction occurs between X-ray photons and tissue. pg.236
Types of Risks Nonstochastic/Deterministic Threshold Nonlinear Includes all early effects Includes some later effects Depends on beam attenuation and on which type of interaction occurs between X-ray photons and tissue. pg.237
Types of Risks Stochastic/Probabilistic No threshold Linear Genetic effects Cancer Includes most late effects Depends on beam attenuation and on which type of interaction occurs between X-ray photons and tissue. pg.237
Types of DNA Damage Main chain, double side rail break Main chain, single side rail break main chain breakage, cross linking Base damage, point mutations Depends on beam attenuation and on which type of interaction occurs between X-ray photons and tissue. pg.239
Law of Bergonie' and Tribondeau the most radiosensitive cells are young, undifferentiated, and highly mitotic cells pg.241
LET means of expressing radiation quality and determining the radiation weighting factor. pg.241
Acute radiation syndromes Hematopoietic gastrointestinal Central nervous system pg.246
Stages of Acute radiation syndrome Prodromal Latent Manifest illness recovery or death pg.246
Beam Restriction Reduces patient dose reduces production of scattered radiation improves image quality
Beam restrictor types aperture diaphragm cone/cylinder collimator pg.254
mAs Controls quantity no effect on quality pg.257
kV controls quality, affects quantity pg.257
Radiation protection rules time distance shielding pg.276
Primary barriers Protects from the useful beam pg.277
Secondary Barriers Protect from scattered and leakage radiation pg.277
Roentgen Measures ionization in air measures X or gamma radiation only is valid up to 3MeV pg.287
Traditional and SI units roentgen Air kerma (Gy) rad Gray(Gy) rem Sievert (Sv) pg.288
Personal Radiation Monitors Optically stimulated luminescence thermoluminescent dosimeter film badge picket dosimeter pg.289
ALARA as low as reasonably achievable pg.275
Rules of selecting patient assistant A male older than 18 is preferred, although female of 18 is acceptable must be provided with protective apparel must not stand in the path of the useful beam must be as far as possible from the useful beam. pg.275
Leakage radiation radiation that is emitted from the X-ray tube housing in directions other than that of the primary beam. pg.274
Scatter radiation when primary X-ray photons intercept an object and undergo a change in direction pg.274
Grid purpose improves the radiographic image by reducing the amount of scattered radiation fog, but necessitate an increase in exposure. pg.268
AEC require accurate positioning and centering to produce predicable results pg.265
Manual timer Must be used as backup timer to avoid patient overexposure and tube overload. pg.265
Two types of AEC Ionization chamber is positioned between the tabletop and IR. the photo timer is located below the IR pg.264
Male gonads More easily and effectively shielded pg.263
PA projection whenever possible To reduce exposure to reproductive organs and breast when possible. pg.263
Three types of gonadal shields Flat contact shadow contour contact pg.262
Gonadal shielding gonads lie in or within 5cm of collimated beam the patient his reproductive potential diagnostic objectives permit pg.262
Radiosensitive organs include the gonads and blood forming organs pg.262
<50 kV .5 mm Al equivalent pg.258
50-70 kV 1.5 mm Al equivalent pg.258
>70 kV 2.5 mm Al equivalent pg.258
how to keep patient dose to a minimum Low mAs and high kV pg.258
Proper calibration of equipment is essential for predictable results and patient safety pg.258
Reducing radiation exposure Proper selection of technical factors and an effective QA system pg.258
Filtration removes low energy X-rays from primary beam pg.258
Filtration reduces patient skin dose increasing the average energy of the beam pg.258
Filtration usually expressed in mm of Al equivalent pg.259
Inherent + added filtration = total filtration pg.259
Inherent filtration includes the glass envelope, oil coolant/insulation pg.259
Inherent filtration increases with tube age, thereby dressing tube output pg.259
Created by: criley2