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Physical science

physical science terms

TermDefinition
Elements each of more than one hundred substances that cannot be chemically inter-converted or broken down into simpler substances
Chemical symbol an abbreviation or short representation of a chemical element; the symbols in the periodic table.
Molecules a group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction.
Chemical formulas a mathematical relationship or rule expressed in symbols.
Mixtures a substance made by mixing other substances together.
Periodic table a table of the chemical elements arranged in order of atomic number, usually in rows, so that elements with similar atomic structure (and hence similar chemical properties) appear in vertical columns.
Atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which determines the chemical properties of an element and its place in the periodic table.
Electrons a stable subatomic particle with a charge of negative electricity, found in all atoms and acting as the primary carrier of electricity in solids.
Atom the basic unit of a chemical element.
Atomic symbol the number of positive charges or protons in the nucleus of an atom of a given element, and therefore also the number of electrons normally surrounding the nucleus.
Compound a thing that is composed of two or more separate elements; a mixture.:
Period a set of elements occupying an entire horizontal row in the periodic table.
Group is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements. There are 18 numbered groups in the periodic table, but the f-block columns (between groups 2 and 3) are not numbered.
Bond a strong force of attraction holding atoms together in a molecule or crystal, resulting from the sharing or transfer of electrons.
Shell a grouping of electrons surrounding the nucleus of an atom; "the chemical properties of an atom are determined by the outermost electron shell" group,
Noble gases any of the chemically inert gaseous elements of group 8A or 0 of the periodic table: helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon. Also called inert gas.
Ionic bond A chemical bond formed between two ions with opposite charges. Ionic bonds form when one atom gives up one or more electrons to another atom.
Covalent relating to or denoting chemical bonds formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms.
Periodic trend Major periodic trends include: electro negativity, ionization energy, electron affinity, atomic radius, melting point, and metallic character.
Electromagnetic relating to the interrelation of electric currents or fields and magnetic fields.
Electron affinity the amount of energy released or spent when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous state to form a negative ion.
Metallic character refers to the level of reactivity of a metal. Non-metallic character relates to the tendency to accept electrons during chemical reactions.
Metallic tendency increases going down a group. Non-metallic tendency increases going from left to right across the periodic table.
Atomic radius generally stated as being the total distance from an atom's nucleus to the outermost orbital of electron.
Mass the quantity of matter that a body contains,
Matter physical substance in general
Weight a body's relative mass or the quantity of matter contained by it,
States of matter There are five known phases, or states, of matter: solids, liquids, gases, plasma and Bose-Einstein condensates. The main difference in the structures of each state is in the densities of the particles.
Solids firm and stable in shape; not liquid or fluid.
Crystal a piece of a homogeneous solid substance having a natural geometrically regular form with symmetrically arranged plane faces.
Liquids a substance that flows freely but is of constant volume, having a consistency like that of water or oil
Melting pot pot in which metals or other materials are melted and mixed
Boiling point the temperature at which a liquid boils and turns to vapor.
Condensation water that collects as droplets on a cold surface when humid air is in contact with it.
freezing point the temperature at which a liquid turns into a solid when cooled.
Solution a liquid mixture in which the minor component (the solute) is uniformly distributed within the major component (the solvent).
Solute the minor component in a solution, dissolved in the solvent.
Solvent able to dissolve other substances
Chemical reaction a process that involves rearrangement of the molecular or ionic structure of a substance,
Products in science is a substance that is formed when two or more chemicals react.
Law of conservation the principle that in any closed system subjected to no external forces, the mass is constant irrespective of its changes in form; the principle that matter cannot be created or destroyed.
Chemical equations A written representation of a chemical reaction, in which the symbols and amounts of the reactants are separated from those of the products by an equal sign, arrow, or a set of opposing arrows.
Endothermic reaction (of a reaction or process) accompanied by or requiring the absorption of heat
Exothermic reaction (of a reaction or process) accompanied by the release of heat.
Activation energy the minimum quantity of energy that the reacting species must possess in order to undergo a specified reaction.
Energy the strength and vitality required for sustained physical or mental activity.
Work the exertion of force overcoming resistance or producing molecular change.
Heat energy or thermal energy or simply heat) is defined as a form of energy which transfers among particles in a substance (or system) by means of kinetic energy of those particles.
Light energy a type of kinetic energy with the ability to form types of light people can see as well as invisible waves.
Electric energy energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor; "they built a car that runs on electricity"
Chemical energy may be released during a chemical reaction, often in the form of heat; such reactions are called exothermic
Mechanical energy the sum of potential energy and kinetic energy. It is the energy associated with the motion and position of an object.
Nuclear energy the energy released by the nucleus of an atom as the result of nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, or radioactive decay
Law of conservation of energy the total energy of an isolated system remains constant—it is said to be conserved over time. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed; rather, it transforms from one form to another.
Potential energy the energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position relative to others
Kinetic energy energy that a body possesses by virtue of being in motion.
Joules the SI unit of work or energy, equal to the work done by a force of one newton when its point of application moves one meter in the direction of action of the force, equivalent to one 3600th of a watt-hour.
Power physical strength and force exerted by something or someone.
Watts the SI unit of power, equivalent to one joule per second, corresponding to the power in an electric circuit
Speed the rate at which someone or something is able to move or operate.:
Velocity the speed of something in a given direction
Acceleration a vehicle's capacity to gain speed within a short time.
Force strength or energy as an attribute of physical action or movement.
Law of motion A body at rest will remain at rest, and a body in motion will remain in motion unless it is acted upon by an external force.”
Law of inertia states that, unless acted upon by an external force, an object at rest remains at rest, or if in motion, it continues to move in a straight line with constant speed.
Law of acceleration states that a body's rate of change of momentum is proportional to the force causing it.
Newton the SI unit of force.
Net force the sum of all forces acting on an object.
Electric charge physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric charges: positive and negative
Static energy an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material. The charge remains until it is able to move away by means of an electric current or electrical discharge.
Electric current the time rate of flow of electric charge, in the direction that a positive moving charge would take and having magnitude equal to the quantity of charge per unit time: measured in amperes
Conductor a material or device that conducts or transmits heat, electricity, or sound,
Insulator a thing or substance used for insulation, in particular.
Semiconductor a solid substance that has a conductivity between that of an insulator and that of most metals
Magnetic field a region around a magnetic material or a moving electric charge within which the force of magnetism acts.
Electromagnet a soft metal core made into a magnet by the passage of electric current through a coil surrounding it.
Permanent magnet a magnet that retains its magnetic properties in the absence of an inducing field or current.
Generator a thing that generates something, in particular.
Transformer an apparatus for reducing or increasing the voltage of an alternating current.
Voltage an electromotive force or potential difference expressed in volts.
Medium through which the wave travels is the ocean water. the medium through which the sound wave travels is the air in the room.
Electromagnetic energy a form of energy that can be reflected or emitted from objects through electrical or magnetic waves traveling through space.
Longitudinal wave the particles of the medium move parallel to the wave's direction of travel.
Transverse waves are characterized by peaks and valleys, called crests and troughs.
Amplitude the maximum extent of a vibration or oscillation, measured from the position of equilibrium.
Frequency the rate at which something occurs or is repeated over a particular period of time or in a given sample
Wavelength the distance between successive crests of a wave, especially points in a sound wave or electromagnetic wave.
Hertz the SI unit of frequency, equal to one cycle per second.
Reflected (of a surface or body) throwback ( heat, light, or sound) without absorbing it.
Absorbed take in or soak up (energy, or a liquid or other substance) by chemical or physical action, typically gradually.
Transmitted cause (something) to pass on from one place or person to another.
Analog relating to or using signals or information represented by a continuously variable physical quantity such as spatial position or voltage.
Digital (of signals or data) expressed as series of the digits 0 and 1, typically represented by values of a physical quantity such as voltage or magnetic polarization.
Created by: rhart1973