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PSY 321

ch 10

QuestionAnswer
experiment a study in which a researcher manipulates at least one variable and measured another.
manipulated variable a variable that is controlled, such as when the researcher assign participants to a particular level (value) of the variable.
measured variable a variable in an experiment whose levels (values) are observed and recorded
independent variable manipulated variable
condition one of the levels of the independent variable in an experiment
dependent variable measured variable, outcome variable
control variable any variable that n experimenter holds constant on purpose
comparison group a group in an experiment whose level on the independent variable differs from those of the treatment group in some intended and meaningful way
control group a level of an independent variable that is intended to represent "no treatment" or a neutral condition
treatment group the participants in an experiment who are exposed to the level of the independent variable that involves a medication, therapy, or intervention
placebo group a control group that is exposed to an inert treatment (i.e. a sugar pill)
confounds a general term for a potential alternative explanation for a research finding ( a threat to internal validity)
design confounds a threat to internal validity in an experiment in which a second variable happens to vary systematically along with the independent variable and therefore is an alternative explanation for the results
systematic variability in an experiment, the levels of a variable coinciding in some predictable way with experimental group membership, creating a potential confound
unsystematic variability in an experiment, when levels of a variable fluctuate independently of experimental group membership, contributing to variability within groups
selection effect a threat to internal validity that occurs in an independent groups design when the kinds of participants at one level of the independent variable are systematically different from those at the other level
random assignment the use of a random method (i.e. flipping a coin) to assign participants into different experimental groups
matched groups an experimental design technique in which participants who are similar on some measured variable are grouped into sets; the members of each matched set are then randomly assigned to different experimental conditions
independent group design an experimental design in which different groups of participants are exposed to different levels of the independent variables, such that each participant experiences only one level the independent variable(between subjects design)
within groups design an experimental design in which each participants is presented with all levels of the independent variable (within subject design)
posttest only design an experiment using an independent groups design in which participants are tested on the dependent variable only once
pretest/posttest design an experiment using an independent groups design in which participants are tested on the key dependent variable twice: once before and once after exposure to the independent variable
concurrent measures design an experiment using a within groups design in which participants are exposed to all the levels of an independent variable at roughly the same time, and a single attitudinal or behavioral preferences in the dependent variable
repeated measures design an experiment using a within groups design in which participants respond to a dependent variable more than once, after exposure to each level of the independent variable
power the likelihood that a study will show a statistical significant result when some effects is truly present in the population; the probability of a type II error
order effect in a within groups design, a threat to internal validity in which exposure to one condition chances participants response to a later condition
practice effects a type of order effect in which people's performance improves over time because they become practiced at the dependent measure ( not because of the manipulation or treatment)
carryover effects a type of order effect, in which some form of contamination carries over from one condition to the next.
counterbalancing in a repeated measures experiment, presenting the levels of the independent variable to participants in different sequences to control for order effects
full counterbalancing a method of counterbalancing in which all possible condition orders are represented
partial counterbalancing a method of counterbalancing in which some, but not all, of the possible condition orders are represented.
latin square a formal system of partial counter balancing that ensures that each condition in within groups design appears in each position at least once.
demand characteristics a threat to internal validity that occurs when some cue leads participants to guess a study's hypothesis or goals
manipulation check in an experiment, an extra dependent variable researchers can include to determine how well an experimental manipulation worked
pilot study a study completed before (sometimes after) the study of primary interest, usually to test the effectiveness or characteristics of the manipulations
Created by: jmitch6