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Cog. Exam 3 part 1

factors in TLC superordinate (general) concepts above subordinate (more specific) concepts -cognitive economy: concepts and their properties are stored at the highest level possible (space saving device//ex. store wings, but later associate w/ dove, birds, etc)
3 major problems for TLC further research showed that "frequency of occurrence" (experience) determines associative connections -1st time: Robin flies in yard, notice that Robin's fly -2nd time: already know they fly, now notice red breast *more each time//all link together
Results further away a concept/property is in the hierarchy the longer RT, support TLC *longer to say a canary eats (3 steps), then can fly (2 steps)
cognitive economy -a canary can sing -a canary can fly (2 steps) -a canary has skin
category size effect -a canary is a canary -a canary is a bird (1 step) -a canary is an animal
Empirical test of TLC -present sentences for confirmation and record reaction time (RT) *key for T/F, record RT
TLC: associative network distance= time levels -distance is the exact same *refer to chart
Processing is a progressive search ex. does a cricket have skin? *work through levels animal- mammal mammal- K9 k9- golden retriever
long term memory Semantic- know George Washington was 1st prez, BUT don't know when I learned that Episodic- describe events
1) cognitive economy incorrect -properties are store redundantly *works only w/ computers -when do all connections break and migrate to high level....human brains have much more capacity than computers
Teachable Language Comprehender Model (TLC): 1 version -computer program: chess playing program-universal translation program -structure/representation: conceptual hierarchy w/ concepts as NODES in an associative network (type)
If 2 things co-occur in Working Memory then we will associate b/w them// the more often they co-occur, the stronger the link will be
key points to start -human cognition is viewed as a computational system (brain is adding and subtracting) -semantic memory (knowledge) is the database for cognitive computations -concepts have traditionally been viewed as ABSTRACTIONS (tree pic in head)
4th function concepts aid in the creation of new knowledge (unique/capable)
3rd function concepts aid in the learning of other concepts (spread of activation analogous to spread of electricity) -the more you know about something, the easier it is to learn new things ex. Psych majors understand cogn psych more than English majors
2nd function concepts allow for efficient communication through inferences (provides platform for indirect learning) *pics in head may be different// but still a tree
1st function concepts allow the classification of equivalent things as a category (provides stability to our perceptual world)
Function of knowledge -the mental representations of knowledge are concepts, and as such, concepts are fundamental aspects of intelligent behavior ex. understand trees then fly to Brazil and know what a tree is even if haven't seen kind before
goal wanted to be able to say "The dog was running through the woods" wanted it to translate in every language, DIDNT WORK!! -different languages have different meanings for words lengths= associative ties b/w them
3) Semantic Relatedness -RT to "Cow is an animal" is faster than for "Cow is a mammal" -sparrow is a bird, than sparrow is an animal
2) typicality effects -robin is a more typical bird than a penguin. thus RT is faster for "Robin is a bird" then "Penguin is a bird" -chicken and turkey viewed more as dinner
Constructive/Reconstructive effects -knowledge can aid and improve memory but it can also cause distortions and inaccuracies in memory -bc it is so flexible, can't trust human memory bc it adapts to what we want it to be -biased = good thing/ works better for us
Scripts Schemata for temporally organized event sequences that have been well learned -going to doctor, grocery shopping, fast food *if people violate, it can throw us off *don't have to think very much, just go and do -mentally fatigued when moving to a new
Office Study -recalled schema consistent items (desk, chair, etc.) but not inconsistent items (skull) says bookcase with books when really nik naks
Scene Schema -spatially organized schema that refer to the physical or spatial relations of objects in space *some things are always the same, if changed can irritate people (remembering stuff that should be there, not actually is (TOP DOWN))
Schema can aid -the encoding of new info -making inferences -the retrieval of info, relevant to the current situation
Schema Theory -a large body of organized info people have various concepts, events, or knowledge domains *relatively inflexible, we have diff schemas (ex. turn on biology schema in bio class)
The War of Ghosts North Pacific Indian Folktale -transition from life to death -normalize and rationalize (add info) -if we couldn't rationalize, we omitted it *went from NP Indian Folktale to Western Civ Ghost Story w/ Ghosts and Indians
Propositional Network Theories -the basic unit of knowledge is best represented as a proposition (the smallest unit possible) -propositional networks = associate networks with a proposition at each node Episode: Sam sells veggies to Guido who owns a restaurant (3 propositions) Sells
Priming refers to the spread of activation that occurs when items are currently or have recently been attended
Created by: cario