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PSYCH 107 CH. 12-15

PSYCH CH. 12-15

social psychology scientific study of how a person's thought, feelings, and behavior influences & is influenced by others
social influence the process by which a real or imagined presence can directly or indirectly affect behavior, thoughts, and feelings
conformity changing one's behavior to match that of others
aschs classic study on conformity line test; confederates would choose wrong line and subjects' answer would change to theirs 1/3 of the time
aschs classic study on conformity: more confederates (incorrect answer) = more conformity until 4 confederates after that it didn't increase
aschs classic study on conformity: less conformity if at least one confederate gave the correct answer
women tend to __________ more than men in a _________ setting conform; public
normative social influence the need to act in certain ways to be liked or accepted ex. laugh at joke be everyone else is laughing even tho you don't get it
informational social influence take cues from others on how to behave in an ambiguous situation
groupthink believe the cohesiveness of the group is more important that realistic facts
symptoms of groupthink (1-4) 1. invincibility (can do no wrong, always succeed) 2. rationalization (shoo away warnings & help rationalize decisions) 3. lack of introspection (don't examine ethics of their decisions) 4. stereotype (underestimate enemy)
symptoms of groupthink (5-8) 5. pressure (each other to consensus) 6. lack of disagreement 7. self-deception (share in delusion of complete agreement) 8. insularity (don't listen to ppl outside of group)
"risky shift" phenomenon group polarization
group polarization when some members tend to suggest riskier or more extreme views vs indivs who have not participated in the group discussion
social facilitation positive influence of others on performance---seems to improve performance (want to impress)
social impairment negative influence of others on performance----seems to make performance bad bc anxiety & nerves
social loafing when ppl who are working in a group dont do as much work but when they are alone they do (3 ppl tug-of-war vs 12 ppl tug-of-war)
deindividuation tendency for individual in group to feel less personal responsibility and less personal ID----lack of self control
compliance when ppl change behaviors bc others have asked or directed them to change
foot-in-the-door technique asking for a small request and then asking for bigger requests
door-in-the-face technique asking for a huge request, and after getting turned down, asking for a smaller more reasonable request
lowball technique
cults use this technique foot-in-the-door
obedience changing ones behavior because a person of authority has commanded you to
milligram's shocking experiment teachers (subjects) would fake shock the learners (confederates) but didnt know they were fake; 65% went to max voltage----may be more than obedience & more of social ID in wanting to do something for a greater cause when prompted but not commanded
social cognition how others think of other ppl and how those cognitions influence how they behave towards them
attitude tendency to respond positively or negatively to a person, idea, object, or situation & tend to occur before they interact with them
components of attitudes (ABCs) Affect = you like it (emotions) Behavior: you buy it (behavior) Cognition = you think about it (thoughts or beliefs on it-----it is the best)
attitude formation 1. direct contact 2. direct instruction 3. interaction w others 4. vicarious learning
persuasion a. source of message b. message itself c. target audience d. medium of message
elaboration likelihood model 1. direct model (sophisticated audience) = attending to message itself 2. peripheral route = attending to factors not involved in message (appearance & length of message)
cognitive dissonance discomfort arising when one's thoughts & behaviors don't correspond
ways to lessen cognitive dissonance 1. change conflicting behavior 2. change conflicting attitude ( do it for $; attitude less likely to change) 3. form new attitude to justify behavior (initial position b4 & attitude most likely to change; volunteer)
what are the keys to lessening cognitive dissonance? volition & public commitment
impression formation influenced by primacy effect; forming of 1st knowledge about another person
social categorization automatic unconscious assignment of new person to some category or group (LABEL)
attribution process of explaining behavior of others as well as own 1. dispositional 2. situational
dispositional attribution internal; judging by attributes of individual
situational attribution external; judging by attributing to external conditions
fundamental attribution error tendency of ppl to overestimate the influence of another person's internal characteristics & underestimate influence of situation
actor-observer bias tendency to use situational attributions to explain bad personal behavior & using dispositional attributions for good personal behavior
prejudice negative thoughts and feeling about a certain group
discrimination treating others differently bc of prejudice
types of prejudice 1. in-group 2. out-group
in-group prejudice social group w whom a person ID w "US"
out-group prejudice social groups w whom a person does not ID w "THEM" a. realistic conflict T (econ. conflict, etc.) b. scapegoating
scapegoating old jewish ritual of putting sins on goat and letting him into the wilderness
how ppl learn prejudice 1. social cognitive T 2. social ID T 3. stereotype vulnerability
social cognitive T prejudice is an attitude acquired thru direct instruction, modeling & other social influences
social ID T formation of a person's ID w/in a group due to: a. social categorization b. social ID c. social comparison (we both failed, but at least I did better than u)
stereotype vulnerability knowledge of someone else's stereotyped opinions a. self-fulfilling prophecy b. stereotype threat = ppl of a stereotyped group are wary of a sit. where their behavior might confirm a stereotype)
overcoming prejudice 1. education 2. intergroup chat 3. equal status contact 4. the "Jigsaw Classroom" ( prejudice reduced when ppl work together to solve a problem & are interdependent
experiment of robber's cave a. boys randomly separate into 2 groups b. competition --> hostility c. experimenters made sit. that req. coop. for success d. equal status contact e. resulted in increase of cross-group friendship
interpersonal attraction liking or having a desire for a r.ship w another person 1. similarity 2. physical attraction 3. proximity 4. complementary qualities 5. reciprocity of liking
the more familiar something is the more you like it
sternberg's triangular T of love 1. intimacy 2. passion 3. commitment
sternberg's 7 diff kinds of love 1. liking 2. infatuation 3. empty 4. romantic 5. fatuous 6. companionate 7. consummate
biological influences of aggression 1. genetics 2. amygdala & limbic system 3. testosterone & serotonin levels
learning influences of aggression 1. social learning T & social roles 2. media violence
john dollard---frustration-aggression hypothesis when there are obstacles in the way of a goal, frustration occurs and may lead to aggression
attitudes can predict behavior only under certain conditions but are a poor predictor
broader attitude vs specific attitude specific attitude will influence behavior more
ways an attitude develops 1. direct contact 2. direct instruction 3. interaction w others 4. vicarious learning
factors that influence persuasion of a new attitude 1. source 2. message 3. target audience 4. medium
who are more susceptible to persuasion young adults
elaboration likelihood model influenced by how easily a person is influenced, people either elaborate based on what they hear or don't and only pay attention to the surface characteristics 1. central-route processing 2. peripheral-route processing
central-route processing people attend to the content of the message
sublimation freud; said that people express in socially accepted ways but have a deeper unacceptable meaning or cause; ex. naked statues seen as art but may be bc of artists' homosexuality
peripheral-route processing people attend to the way the message is presented; length, message source, and other factors
fester & carleston study people who got paid $1 changed their attitude from boring to fun in order to not lie & the people paid $20 lied bc it was worth the money
self perception T bem: instead of experiencing a negative tension, ppl look at their own actions and then infer their attitudes from those actions; opposes cognitive-dissonance
part of brain most active when ppl have made a decision that will reduce dissonance L frontal cortex (language and decisions)
aggression behavior intended to harm
leonard berkowitz-----modification T modified john dollard's frustration-aggression hypothesis; if something frustrates you, you will become angry; being aggressive is due to other factors such as cues (ex. weapons)
cognitive determinants of aggression 1.aspect of environment (ex. weapons present?) 2. perception of retaliatory capability of other person 3. perception of unfairness 4. perception of relative deprivation
the power of social roles---social roles: pattern of behavior expected of a person in a particular social position
prosocial behavior a. altruism & prosocial behavior b. bystander effect c. diffusion of responsibility (more ppl = more diffusion & less responsibility)
personality unique & stable ways people think, feel, and behave (IDENTITY)
personality = temperament + experience
4 main perspectives of personality 1. psychodynamic 2. behavioral 3. humanistic 4. trait
freud psychodynamic background a. victorian era (sex. repression; only for procreation; mistresses controlled men's "urges") b. mostly treated women bc "hysteria"
freud's psychodynamic conception of personality 1. conscious (EGO): contact w outside world [knows diff betw. real & fantasy] 2. preconscious (SUPEREGO): material just beneath surface [morality] 3. unconscious (ID): diff to retrieve material; well below surface [primal]
1-2 yr old ego ego develops t immediate betw. ID and reality
3-4 yr old ego superego begins to develop; sense of right & wrong
psychological defense mechanisms unconscious distortions of reality; we all use them but there is a cost overtime they're used
five stages of personality development freud psychosexual stages: 1. oral stage 2. anal stage 3. phallic stage 4. xxxxxx 5. genital stage
fixation unresolved psychosexual stage conflict; "stuck" in that stage development
oral stage 1st year; weaning is primary conflict; mouth = erogenous zone
anal stage 1-3 y/o; ego dev.; toilet training conflict; expulsive vs retentive (ex. stingy) personalities
phallic stage 3-6 y/o; 1st signs of sexuality ("childhood sexuality"); superego dev.; sexual feelings; oedipus conflict
latency stage 6 y/o-puberty; sexual feelings repressed; same-sex play; social skills (quiet stage)
genital stage puberty; sexual feelings consciously expressed
jung collective unconscious
adler feelings of inferiority
approaches to personality 1. psychoanalysis (freud) 2. behaviorism (skinner) 3. humanist (rogers)
behaviorist personality skiner: set of learned responses or habits; social cognitive personality
social cognitive personality emphasizes importance of others' behavior on one's own thoughts & expectations
bandura's reciprocal determinism environment, person's characteristics, and behavior itself all interact
bandura's self-efficacy perception of one's competence in certain situations
rotter's social learning T: expectancies personality is a set of potential responses to diff situations including a. locus of control b. sense of expectancy
the 3rd force humanism and personality
humanistic view of personality focuses on traits that make ppl uniquely human a. reaction against negativity of psychoanalysis & behavioral determinism
self-actualization tendency striking to fulfill innate capabilities
self-concept image of self that dev. from interactions w significant ppl in one's life; we all have one
real self one's perception of actual characteristics, traits, and abilities
ideal self what on should or would like to be
when ideal and real self match = harmony
when ideal and real self don't match = anxiety, guilt, and depression
conditional positive regard positive regard given only when person is doing what the providers of positive regard wish
unconditional positive regard positive regard given w/o strings attached
3 critical traits rogers: 1. empathy 2. warmth 3. genuine (if therapist has all 3, patient feels safe & not critical of self so much)
empathy ability to sense and respond to emotions
warmth unconditional positive regard-----respect even if disagree
genuine basic r.ship built around honesty
traits T trait = consistent, enduring way of thinking, feeling, or behaving
allport listed 200 traits and believed traits were part of nervous system
cattell reduced # of allport's traits to 16-23 w/ computer method of FACTOR ANALYSIS; surface & source traits
factor analysis helps reduce the # of reported variables by combining significant variables into a single variable/factor
charles spearman factor analysis
cattell's surface traits seen by others in outward actions of person
cattell's source traits more basic traits forming core of personality (ex. introversion is the source trait of withdrawal)
big 5 or 5-factor model OCEAN: openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
Walter mischel said traits are not always stable ------ may change according to situation
openness creative, artistic, curious, imaginative, nonconforming
conscientiousness organized, reliable, neat, ambitious, good "foot soldiers"
extroversion talkative, optimistic, sociable, affectionate
agreeableness good-natured, trusting, helpful
neuroticism worrying, anxious, insecure, temperamental, depressed
behavioral genetics study of heredity and personality
selective breeding leads to predictable temperament of animals
variations in personality are _______ - _________% inherited 25-50%
environmental variations in personality accounts for rest of _________% 50%
why do psychs want to assess personality? 1. research purposes 2. screening (military, job, probation) 3. diagnosis 4. therapeutic progress
eclectic assessment 1. inventories 2. projective tests 3. observations 4. interviews
interviews professional asks structured or unstructured qs
problems w interviews a. halo effect (allowing clients' positive traits to influence assessment of client) b. variation from one interviewer to another
projecting projecting one's unacceptable thoughts or impulses onto another person (I'm not angry YOURE angry)
projective tests ambiguous visual stimuli presented to client who responds w whatever comes to mind
projective test-----rorschach inkblot test 10 inkblots are ambiguous stimuli
projective test-------thematic apperception test 20 pics of ppl in ambiguous situations; murray: make up a story
behavioral assessments-----direct observations professional observes client in client or natural setting
personality inventories response format: y/n or T/F; questionnaire; incl. validity scales to prevent cheating but not perfect 1. NEO-PI 2. myers-briggs 3. MMPI-2
NEO-PI based on 5-factor model
myers-briggs based on jung's T of personality types
MMPI-2 designed to detect abnormal personality
self-perception T (challenges cognitive dissonance T) instead of experiencing negative tension, ppl look at their actions and infer their attitudes from them
early explanations of mental illness 1. evil spirits (ancient times) 2. imbalance of 4 humors (hippocrates) 3. possession & exorcism (middle ages) 4. mentally ill = witches (renaissance)
what is abnormal behavior? 1. statistically rare 2. deviants from norms 3. causes subjective discomfort 4.disturbs daily function 5. causes person to be dangerous to self or others
DSM (1952): revised mult. times as knowledge & ways of thinking about psych disorders changes; NOW IN 5TH EDITION; description of disorders; 20 categories of 250 diff disorders
what % of americans 18+ have a mental disorder in any given year? 26.2%
what % of homeless ppl are mentally ill? ~35%
objective observable behaviors moved away from theoretical to observable criteria; improved reliability but controversy on what fits criteria
anxiety disorders affect fear and emo 1. phobia 2. panic disorder 3. generalized anxiety disorder 4. OCD 5. acute & PTSD
anxiety disorders: phobia (greek); irrational, persistent fear of an object, sit., or social activity 1. social anxiety 2. specific phobias 3. agoraphobia
social anxiety disorders (social phobias) fear of being neg. evaluated in social situations
specific phobias fear of objects, sits., or events
agoraphobia (fear of marketplace); fear of place, sit. from which escape is difficult of impossible
anxiety disorders: panic frequent, disruptive panic attacks 1. panic attack (sudden intense panic) 2. panic disorder w agoraphobia (fear of panic in unfamiliar public place)
anxiety disorders: generalized anxiety disorder 1. feelings of dread/doom & physical stress lasting at least 6 months 2. sources of anxiety often can't be pinpointed 3. subject of worry changes 4. worry about things most ppl don't
phobias & __________ have the same symptoms but ________ don't have a specific ________ panic disorders; cause
[anxiety disorders]: OCD used to be classified as an anxiety disorder but not anymore; itself is a category; 1. obsessive: recurring thoughts create anxiety 2. compulsive: repetitive behavior or mental acts reduce that anxiety
anxiety disorders: acute and post traumatic stress disorder
mood vs affect affect: moment to moment emo. reactions (weather) mood: over-all, prevailing feelings (climate)
mood disorders significant disturbances in emo. ( extreme emos. experienced -----> abnormal)
mood disorders: major depression unipolar; severe depression, sudden, no apparent cause; MOST COMMON of mood disorders; twice as common in WOMEN > than in MEN
mood disorders bipolar disorders 1. severe (major depressions alt. w manic episodes) 2. less severe (hypomania alt. w depression) 3. cyclothalmmic (much less severe)
causes of mood disorders 1. behavioral (depression & learned helplessness) 2. cognitive 3. biological **seratonin and neuroperephrin
dissociative disorders disruption in normal integrated functions of conscious awareness, memory, and/or sense of ID
dissociative disorders: dissociative amnesia memory loss for personal info; partial or complete
dissociative disorders: dissociative fugue travel from familiar surroundings w amnesia for trip & possibly new personal ID
dissociative disorders: dissociative ID disorder (mult. personality disorder)
causes of dissociative disorders 1. psychodynamic: repress mems., defense mech. for anxiety 2. cog. & behav.: trauma thought avoidance is neg. reinforced by low. anxiety & pain 3. bio: low than normal activity levels in areas responsible for body awareness; depersonalization disorders
schizophrenia altered reality; primary disruption in thinking; severely disordered, psychotic thinking, bizarre behav.
symptoms of schizophrenia 1. positive (excess): delusions, hallucinations [dopamine high] 2. negative (lack): poor attention, flat effect: lack of emo response, poor speech production [dopamine low]
causes of schizophrenia 1. dopamine (either too much or too many receptors) 2. stress-vulnerability disorder: stress can trigger disorder but if not,even if genetic, it will not show up
personalty disorders persistent, rigid maladaptive behavior interfering w normal social interaction 1. 10 in total
personalty disorders: cluster A odd & eccentric; paranoid (distant bc no trust), schizoid (hermit), schizotypal (hermit but weird thinking)
personalty disorders: cluster B (involved ppl) dramatic, emotional, erratic (MOST TROUBLESOME); antisocial (psycho/sociopaths--no empathy) [overrep. in prison];histrionic (freq. FEMALE, life of party, flashy & outgoing); borderline (fear of abandon "glenn close"); narcissistic
personalty disorders: cluster C anxiety or fearfulness; avoidant (don't form r.ships bc afraid); dependent (child-like & fearful decisions); obsessive compulsive (perfectionist)
causes of personality disorders 1. way they're raised 2. [high] stress tolerance: lower than normal stress hormones in antisocial bc low threat response to fear 3. genetic 4. cognitive behavioral
therapy intervention/treatment meant to make ppl feel better & function more effectively
2 kinds of modern therapy 1. psychotherapy 2. biomedical therapy
psychotherapy person talking to psych about their probs.; 1. insight 2. action 3. goals
biomedical therapy uses a medical procedure to bring about changes in behavior 1. drugs 2. surgical 3. electric shock
psychoanalysis (treatment & theory) therapy to reveal unconscious conflicts 1. dream interp (manifest & latent content) 2. free assoc (talk about anything in mind ---> deeper stuff) 3. resistance (hitting a nerve) 4. transference (seeing psych as a sig other [dad] & vice versa)
insight doesn't always lead to change
dreams are the royal road to unconscious
interpersonal therapy 1. insight 2. focuses on RELATIONSHIPS & daily events 3. derived from psychoanalysis 4. research support in trading depression
humanistic therapy 1. rogers' person-centered therapy a. non directive insight therapy b. client talks; psych listens c. growth from w/in client d. psych doesn't interp or analyze just fosters a safe place
4 elements of rogers' therapy 1. empathy 2. authenticity 3. reflection 4. unconditional positive regard
behavior therapy 1950s-60s; action therapies; classical & operant conditioning; behavior modification/ applied behavior analysis (behavior changes via learning techniques
applied behavior analysis behavior modification
therapies based on classical conditioning 1.systematic desensitization (treating phobias) step 1: fear hierarchy (breaking down fear into smaller units] step 2: deep relaxation training step 3: progressive exposure
aversion therapy undesirable behavior paired w aversion stimulus (punishment for bad behavior)
exposure therapy introduces ppl to sits related ti their anxieties under controlled conditions a. flooding (rapid, intense exposure) b. EMDR
therapies based on operant conditioning 1. modeling: learning via observation & imitation a. participant modeling (therapist takes client step-by-step in being involved w treatment)
distortions of thinking 1. arbitrary thinking (concl. w no evidence) 2. selective thinking 3. over-general. (concl. based on 1 incident) 4. mag. & min. (neg events blown out of proportion & pos events ignored) 5. personalization (assuming too much personal responsibility)
cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT) 1. a thought is just a thought 2. learning to think more rationally 3. 3 goals (receive symps. & solve prob., dev. strategies for future probs., help change irrational distorted thinking) 4. what if...? vs SO what if!
group therapy advantages 1. low coast 2. exposure to others w similar sit. 3. socai interaction 4. social and emo support 5. effective for ppl w social anxiety
group therapy disadvantages 1. must share therapists' time 2. lacked of privacy 3. must share confidentiality 4. some ppl can't deal in groups
studies of effectiveness of therapy 1. 75-90% found therapy helpful 2. longer in therapy = better improvement 3. certain therapies better for certain problems 4. no 1 approach to solve all problems
characteristics of effective therapeutic alliance developed
therapeutic alliance good r.ship between therapist & client
behavioral therapies 1. psychopharmacology 2. electrocinvulsive & TMS therapy
only 1/3 of abused children go on to become abusers
altruism prosocial behavior done w no expectation of reward and may include putting self in harm's way for others
types of defense mechanisms 1. denial 2. repression 3. rationalization 4. projection (putting feels as if it was other persons) 5. reaction formation (saying opp of unconscious feel) 6. displacement 7. regression 8. identification (copying) 9. compensation 10. sublimation
personal unconscious freud
collective unconscious jung (neo-freudian); universal human memories------archetypes (anima/animus & dark side)
anima/animus fem side of men/masc side of women
adler (neo-freud) inferiority felt at birth; focused on feelings of superiority over sexuality; birth order theory
horney (neo-freud) "womb envy" (bc boys cant bear children); born w basic anxiety of "big world" but if have good parents feels are resolved but if have bad parent neurotic personalities dev. (clingy or aggressive, or withdrawn)
erikson (neo-frued) focused on r.ships (_____ vs ____'s)
personality to a behaviorists is a set of habits
social cognitive view of personality people influence personality and parts of personality are learned by watching and interacting with others
heritability how much of a trait that can be attributed to genetic influences
hofstede's 4 dimensions of cultural personality 1. collectivism/individualism 2. power distance 3. masculinity/femininity 4. uncertainty avoidance
halo effect seeing patient as a good person and distorting what they say so they always look like a good person (opposite is horn effect)
behavioral genetics study of the r.ship between heredity and personality
psychopharmacology: antipsychotic drugs treat psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions
psychopharmacology: antianxiety drugs calm anxiety reactions
psychopharmacology: mood stabilizers treat bipolar disorder
psychopharmacology: antidepressant treat depression & anxiety (MAOIs, tricyclics, SSRIs)
psychopharmacology drugs primarily work by affecting neurotransmitters
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) delivery of electric shock to either 1 or both sides of head (quick short-term treatment for severe depression)
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) newer approach w less side effects
psychopathology study of abnormal behavior
cultural syndromes 1. cultural idioms of distress (ways to describe disorder in cultural context) 2. cultural explanations or perceived cause (why they have the disorder in context of culture)
magnification making a mountain out of a molehill
all-or-nothing thinking if its not perfect its a failure
overgeneralization one bad incident interp. in other similar sits. and a never-ending pattern of defeat
minimization giving little or no emphasis on one's good traits or events
Created by: daisy98