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PSYCH MMRY TEST 2020

Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian PSYCH. "Cognition: Memory" Test Flashcards 2020

QuestionAnswer
What does the term "explicit memory" mean/ refer to? "The system underlying conscious memories".
Complete the following sentence: "The memory that we retrieve from explicit memory is _________________ ___________________." Declarative Memory.
What is the difference between "episodic" and "semantic memory"? "Episodic memory" refers to a person’s past experiences; "Semantic memory" is "the knowledge of facts that are independent of person experience".
"Procedural memory" is also known as ______________ _______________. Muscle Memory.
Complete the following sentence: "The memory that we retrieve from implicit memory is ___________________ ______________." Procedural Memory.
What does the term "prospective memory" mean/ refer to? This refers to "remembering to do something at some time in the future".
What does the term "forgetting" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the inability to retrieve a memory from long-term storage".
What is the difference between "proactive" and "retroactive Interference"? "Proactive interference" happens when old information inhibits the ability to remember new information; "retroactive interference" happens when new information inhibits the ability to remember new information.
What does the term "blocking" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the temporary inability to remember something that is known".
List one (1) condition that might cause "blocking" to occur. This situation might happen due to interference from words that are similar in some way - such as sound or meaning - and that recur.
What is the difference between "parallel processing" and "serial processing"? "Parallel processing" occurs when multiple types of information are processed at the same time, while "serial processing" occurs when a single piece of information is processed at a time.
Explain the "Cocktail Party Phenomenon" in your own words. This occurs when you are at a cocktail party or other large social gathering and are only able to focus on a single conversation at a time - only a "particularly pertinent stimulus" can capture your attention.
Explain Donald Broadbent's "Filter Theory" (1958) in your own words. He believed that people have a limited capacity for sensory information. They screen information to let in only the most important information.
What does the term "sensory memory" mean/ refer to and how long does it last? This refers to "a temporary memory system closely tied to the sensory system. (Lasts only a fraction of a second.)
Explain the "Serial Position Effect" in your own words. This is "the ability to recall items from a list depends on order of presentation, with items presented early or late in the list remembered better than those in the middle.”
What is the difference between "primacy" and "recency effects"? The "primacy effect" states that people have a better memory for items at the beginning of a list. The "recency effect" states that people have a better memory for things at the end of a list.
What did we learn about "multitasking" in class? We learned that what people call "multitasking" is actually a reference to people's ability to switch their attention back and forth between different stimuli very quickly.
Is "multitasking" possible? No. The human brain can only pay attention to one (1) stimuli at a time.
What does the term "cryptoamnesia" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the phenomena whereby people think that they have come up with a new idea, when, in reality, they retrieved an old idea & failed to attribute it to its proper source.
What is "source misattribution"? This occurs when people misremember the time, place, person, or circumstances involved with a memory.
What is "source amnesia"? This occurs when a person has a memory for an event but cannot remember where he or she encountered the information.
What does the term "flashbulb memories" mean/ refer to? This term refers to ". . . vivid memories of the circumstances in which people first learn of a surprising and consequential or emotionally arousing event".
Explain how "memory bias" works. In this process, memories change over time so that they are consistent with a person's current beliefs or attitudes.
In the videos that we watched that were related to "extraordinary memory", list the main difference between Marilu Henner's encoding and retrieval process vs. Stephen Wiltshire's processes. Marilu Henner linked information together in her long term memory & had a very vivid memory for facts while Stephen Wiltshire encoded information visually and had what might be called a "photographic memory".
List two (2) of the tips you read about in the article titled "How Can I Study More Effectively for Exams?" 1.) Use verbal mnemonics; 2.) Distribute your learning over time (do not "cram" information); 3.) Elaborate the material (think more deeply about terms and concepts); 4.) Overlearn; 5.) Use visual imagery.
In the video that we watched - "Stephen Wiltshire: Human Camera" - what is Stephen diagnosed with? Stephen has been diagnosed with autism.
What are two (2) things that Stephen Wiltshire's drawing ability "unlocked" for him? 1.) His speaking ability; 2.) His ability to travel and do things independently.
About how old was Stephen Wiltshire when he "discovered" his "gift"? He was about 5 years old when this happened.
Give two (2) examples of things that professionals say related to Stephen Wiltshire's "gift"? 1.) That he has a talent that only about 100 people in the world have; 2.) That his drawing ability has allowed him to express himself in ways that he may not otherwise have been able to do.
How was Stephen Wiltshire's "gift" "discovered"? This was discovered when his teachers at elementary school gave him paper and a pencil in an attempt to calm him.
What does the term "encoding" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the process of transferring information from short - term to long - term memory.
What does the term "retrieval" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the process of "remembering stored information when it is needed".
How long does short - term memory last? This lasts about 30 seconds.
How long does long - term memory last? This lasts indefinitely.
What does the term "consolidation" mean/ refer to where memory is concerned? This term refers to "the neural process by which encoded information becomes stored in memory".
What area of the brain is responsible for spatial memory? The hippocampus is responsible for this type of learning.
What area of the brain is responsible for "fear learning"? The amygdala is responsible for this type of learning.
What area of the brain is responsible for "motor action learning and memory"? The cerebellum is responsible for this type of learning.
What does the term "long - term potentiation" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the strengthening of a synaptic connection, making the postsynaptic neurons more easily activated by presynaptic neurons.
What does the term "reconsolidation" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the "neural processes involved when memories are recalled and then stored again for retrieval".
What is one (1) way that your textbook says to think of "reconsolidation"? Our textbook says to compare this to a librarian returning a book to a shelf for storage so that it can be taken out again later.
What does the term "chunking" mean/ refer to where memory is concerned? This term refers to "organizing information into meaningful units to make it easier to remember".
What does the term "schemas" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "cognitive structures that help us perceive, organize, process, and use information".
What are "mnemonics"? These are "learning aids, strategies, and devices that improve recall through the use of retrieval cues".
What does the term "blocking" mean where memory is concerned? This term refers to "the temporary inability to remember something".
What is the difference between "retrograde" and "anterograde amnesia"? Retrograde amnesia is when people lose past memories from events, facts, people, & sometimes personal information. Anterograde amnesia is the loss of the ability to form new memories.
Created by: sticklerpjpII