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RADT465

radiation protection,physics,and radiobiology

QuestionAnswer
1- biologic material irradiated under hypoxic conditions is less sensitive than when irradiated under oxygenated condition.(langeQ&A p.125)
what is the monthly gestational dose- equivalent limit for embryo/fetus of a pregnant radiographer according to the NCRP? 0.5mSv (langeQ&A p.125)
2-what is the monthly gestational dose- equivalent limit for embryo/fetus of a pregnant radiographer according to the NCRP? 0.5mSv (langeQ&A p.125)
3- stochastic/ probabilistic effects of radiation are those that may be described as "all-or-nothing" effects and are late effects(langeQ&A p.125)
4- is 50% of pubic exposure to ionizing radiation is from medical sources (true or false) true (langeQ&A p.125)
5-what cell type has the greatest radiosensitivity in the adult human? lymphocytes (langeQ&A p.125)
6- what is the most likely to occur when the interaction between ionizing radiation and the target molecule indirect effect (langeQ&A p.126)
7- sources of natural background radiation include ________,________, and ______________ radon, internal sources, and thoron (langeQ&A p.126)
8- what is kerma? it is the unit that used to express kinetic energy released in matter(langeQ&A p.126)
9- ______________ acute radiation syndrome requires the largest exposure before the associated effects become apparent central nervous system (langeQ&A p.126)
10-what is established annual occupational dose-equivalent limit for the lens of the eye? 150 mSv (langeQ&A p.126)
11- when is occupational radiation monitoring is required? when the individual might receive more than one-tenth the annual dose limit (langeQ&A p.126)
12-sources of natural background radiation contributing to whole- body radiation dose include___________&_____________ terrestrial radionuclides & internal radionuclides (langeQ&A p.126)
13- define radiolysis? irradiation of water molecules within the body and their resulting breakdown (langeQ&A p.126)
14-diagnostic x-radiation may be correctly described as low energy, low LET(langeQ&A p.126)
15-_______ is used to account for the differences in tissue characteristic when determining effective dose to biologic material. tissue weighting factor (Wt)(langeQ&A p.127)
16- what is the x-ray interaction with the matter that is responsible for majority of the scatter radiation reaching IR? Compton scatter (langeQ&A p.127)
17- lead aprons function to protect the user from ______ scattered radiation (langeQ&A p.127)
18- late radiation- induced somatic effects include ______,_______,&________ thyroid cancer, cataractogenesis , and genetic mutations (langeQ&A p.127)
19- the law of Bergonie and Tribondeau states that cells are more radiosensitive if they are _________&__________ highly proliferative and immature (langeQ&A p.127)
20- a thermoluminescent dosimetry system would use ________ crystals lithium fluoride (langeQ&A p.127)
21- sources of secondary radiation include ____________&___________ leakage radiation and scattered radiation(langeQ&A p.127)
22-focal spot size has an effect on patient dose (true or false) false (langeQ&A p.128)
23- when is the photoelectric effect occur ? 1- absorbers having a high Z number 2-positive contrast media (langeQ&A p.128)
24- an increase in total filtration of the x-ray beam will increase________ beam HVL (langeQ&A p.128)
25-in radiation protection, to determine the product of absorbed dose, weighting factors, and radiation weighting factors is EfD(langeQ&A p.128)
26-what is recommended for the pregnant radiographer? wear second dosimeter under the lead apron (langeQ&A p.128)
27- the annual dose limit for medical imaging personnel includes radiation from occupational exposure (true or false) true (langeQ&A p.128)
28-what is the benefit of moving the image intensifier closer to the patient during fluroroscopy? decrease patient dose - improves image quality - decreases the SID (langeQ&A p.128)
29- what cells are composed of non-dividing, differentiated cells? neurons and neuroglia (langeQ&A p.129)
30- is 0.25 mm pb equivalent minimum lead requirement for lead aprons. (true or false) true (langeQ&A p.129)
31- what is the most radiosensitive portion of GI tract? small bowel (langeQ&A p.129)
32- immature cells are called stem cells and undifferentiated cells (langeQ&A p.129)
33- define scattering? is the term used to describe x-ray photon interaction with the matter and the transference of part of the photon's energy to matter.(langeQ&A p.129)
34- what is the advantages of anatomic compression during procedure? decreased patient dose - improved contrast resolution - improved spatial resolution (langeQ&A p.129)
35- does the filtration affect the primary beam and how? yes, it increase the average energy of the primary beam.(langeQ&A p.129)
36-useful x-ray beam can be directed toward is called primary barrier (langeQ&A p.129)
37- the annual dose limit for occupationally exposed individuals is valid for ____________&______________&___________________- beta, x-, and gamma radiation(langeQ&A p.129)
38- patient dose increase as fluoroscopic FOV decreases (true or false) true (langeQ&A p.130)
39- what dose REM(Sv) measure? is used to express ionizing radiation dose to biologic material (langeQ&A p.130)
40- define LET? a method of expressing radiation quality and a measure of the rate at which radiation energy is transferred to soft tissue (langeQ&A p.130)
41- what is epilation? when the skin response to radiation exposure that appears as hair loss (langeQ&A p.130)
42- give an examples of late effect of ionizing radiation on humans leukemia -local tissue damage - malignant disease (langeQ&A p.130)
43- define attenuation ? it is the reduction in the intensity of an x-ray beam as it passes through material (langeQ&A p.130)
44- the largest amount of diagnostic x-ray absorption is most likely to occur in lung (true or false) false in bone (langeQ&A p.131)
45- according to NCRP , leakage radiation from the x-ray tube must not exceed 100mR/h(1.0 mGya/hr) (true or false) true (langeQ&A p.131)
46-primary radiation barriers usually require 1/8 inch lead (true or false) false 1/16 inch (langeQ&A p.132)
47- what is the annual effective occupational dose-equivalent limit ? 5 rem (50mSv) (langeQ&A p.133)
48- (true or false) as LET increases, RBE increases. true (langeQ&A p.132)
49- an increase of 1.0-mm added aluminum filtration of the x-ray beam would have increase in average energy of the beam (langeQ&A p.133)
50- correctly used to describe x-ray beam quality HVL (langeQ&A p.134)
51- the SSD in mobile fluoroscopy must be a minimum of 12 inch (langeQ&A p.135)
52- what is the annual occupational whole-body dose-equivalent limit, according to NCRP? 50 mSv (langeQ&A p.135)
53- what would result in the greatest skin dose? short SID (langeQ&A p.136)
54-what type of ionizing radiation is described as having an RBE of 1.0? diagnostic x-rays (langeQ&A p.136)
Created by: alaasaud