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Intro to Psych Ch. 8

Association Process by which two pieces of information from the environment are repeatedly linked so that we begin to connect them in our minds.
Classical Conditioning Form of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus to which one has an automatic, inborn response.
Conditioned Stimulus A previously neutral input that an organism learns to associate with the UCS
Conditioned response A behavior that an organism learns to perform when presented with the CS
Conditioning A form of associative learning in which behaviors are triggered by associations with events in the environment.
Continuous Reinforcement Reinforcement of a behavior every time it occurs
Extinction The weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response in the absence of reinforcement.
Fixed Ratio Schedule Pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which reinforcement follows a set number of responses.
Fixed Intervall Schedule Pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which responses are always reinforced after a set period of time has passed.
Intermittent Reinforcement Reinforcement of a behavior, but not after every response
Learning Enduring changes in behavior that occur with experience.
Modeling The imitation of behaviors performed by others
Negative Reinforcement Removal of a stimulus after a behavior to increase the frequency of that behavior
Negative Punishment The removal of a stimulus to decrease behavior
Operant Conditioning The process of changing behavior by manipulating the consequences of that behavior.
Positive Reinforcement The presentation or addition of a stimulus after a behavior occurs that increases how often that behavior will occur
Primary Reinforcement Innate, unlearned reinforcers that satisfy biological needs (such as food, water , or sex)
Punishment Stimulus that decreases the frequency of a behavior
Reinforcer An internal or external event that increases the frequency of a behavior
Schedules of Reinforcement Patterns of intermittent reinforcement distinguished by whether reinforcement occurs after a set number of responses or after a certain amount of time has passed since the last reinforcement
Secondary (Or conditioned) Reinforcers Reinforcers that are learned by association, usually via classical conditioning (such as money, grades, and peer approval)
Social Learning Theory Description of the kind of learning that occurs when we model or imitate the behavior of others
Spontaneous Recovery The sudden reappearance of an extinguished response
Stimulus Generalization Extension of the association between UCS and CS to include a broad array of similar stimuli
Stimulus Discrimination Restriction of a CR (such as salivation) to only the exact CS to which it was conditioned
Unconditioned Response The natural automatic, inborn reaction to a stimulus.
Unconditioned Stimulus The environmental input that always produces the same unlearned response
Variable Ratio Schedule A pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which the number of responses needed for reinforcement change
Variable Interval Schedule A pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which responses are reinforced after time periods for different duration have passed
Positive Punishment The addition of a stimulus that decreases behavior
Pavlov’s Dogs When dogs were presented with food they salivated Before they received food a bell would go off which caused them to salivate before the food was in their mouths. Every time the bell went off they salivated thinking they were going to be receiving food
How Classical Conditioning Works Multiple parings of USC & neutral stimulus (CS) are necessary for an association to occur & for the CS to produce the conditioned response The USC & CS must be paired or presented very close together in time in order for an association to form
The Conditioning of Little Albert Study done by John B Watson Introduced him to different animals -- every time he went to touch the rat a loud noise would go off -- Eventually he was scared of everything with fur
Schedules of Reinforcement Patterns of intermittent reinforcement distinguished by whether reinforcement occurs after a set number of responses or after a certain amount of time has passed since the last reinforcement
Latent Learning Learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response; it occurs without any obvious reinforcement of the behavior or associations that are learned
Created by: kristaj
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