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Car/Pul Unit 6

SPC Cardiopulmonary Physiology Unit 6 Exam 3

QuestionAnswer
What is Pulmonary Proprioceptor and how is it stimulated? Sensory-end organs in muscles, tendons, and ligaments that are sensitive to movement. they are stimulated due to increase respiratory mechanics of the lung & chest wall.
What are the factors that affect Pulmonary Proprioceptor? 1. Decreased lung compliance- edema, fibrosis, consolidation 2. Decreased chest wall compliance- ascites, obesity 3. Increased airway resistance- bronchospasm, secretions 4. Exercise
What is the physiological role of Pulmonary Proprioceptor? 1. Plays a significant role in controlling dyspnea when chronic conditions are established due to disease or conditioning 2. Innervation is via the alpha/gamma efferent & spindle afferent pathways.
What are the 3 pulmonary vagal sensory reflexes? 1. Pulmonary Stretch Receptors/Hering-Breuer Reflex 2. Irritant Receptors 3. Juxtapulmonary Capillary Receptors
What stimulates the Pulmonary Stretch Receptors? 1. Increase Lung Volume 2. Decrease Intrapleural Pressure
What are the physiological responses when the Pulmonary Stretch Receptors are stimulated? 1. Inhibition of Inspiration 2. Bronchodilation 3. Increased Heart Rate
What is the newborns response to stimulation of Paradoxical Reflex of Head? 1. The gasp Reflex 2. The reflex augmentation of the newborns first breath with a subtle "breath stack" 3. Helps establish the newborns FRC
What stimulates the Irritant Receptors? 1. Gases, chemical irritants like smoke, dusts, chlorine, & ammonia 2. Mechanical Stimulation like foreign bodies such as pennies & toys
What are the physiological responses when the Irritant Receptors are stimulated? 1. Hyperpnea 2. Cough 3. Bronchoconstriction 4. Laryngeal Constriction on Expiration (Expiratory Grunt)
What stimulates the J Receptors? 1. Interstitial Edema 2. Pulmonary Emboli
What are the physiological responses when the J Receptors are stimulated? 1. Hypopnea 2. Tachypnea 3. Expiratory Grunt
What are the 3 major fetal shunts? 1. Ductus Venosus 2. Foramen Ovale 3. Ductus Arteriosus
What does the Ductus Venosus do? Communicates the umbilical vein with the IVC
What does the Foramen Ovale do? Communicates the fetal arteria
What does the Ductus Arterious do? Communicates the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta
Functional closure of the Foramen Ovalae occurs when? 1. Decrease right atrial pressure as IVC blood flow decreases 2. Increased left atrial pressure as pulmonary venous blood flow increases.
Closure of the Ductus Arteriosus occurs when? 1. Decreased levels of prostaglandin E1 2. Increased PaO2 3. Decreased PVR
What are the pulmonary changes noted with aging? 1. Residual Volume Increases-Air Trapping- Small Airway Closure 2. Expiratory flows- Decreases- Small Airway Closure 3. Diffusion Capacity- Decreases- Loss of AC surface area
What is a decrease in elastance? Lost of elastic tissue & alveolar septa
What is an increase in airway resistance (RAW)? Loss of tethering effect- small airways narrow & close upon expiration
What are the cardiovascular changes noted with aging? 1. Hypertrophy LV- Increase Afterload- Decreased Ventricular Compliance 2. Decreased Ventricular Compliance- Increased connective tissue 3. Decreased SV- #1 & #2
What are the pulmonary changes noted with exercise? 1. Increased VE (Increased VT & f) 2. Increased alveolar ventilation (up to 65% of MBC) 3. Increased diffusion capacity x3
What are the cardiovascular changes noted with exercise? 1. Increase O2 consumption (VO2) 2. Increased O2 ER 3. Decreased SvO2 4. Increased Ca-vO2 5. Increased S.V. x50% 6. Increased H.R. x200% or greater 7. C.O. reaches 90% of max
What are the beneficial effects of cardiopulmonary training in patients? 1. Increased S.V. 2. Decreased resting H.R. 3. Increased muscular strength 4. Decreased myocardial & respiratory oxygen cost
What is the normal value for WOB? 0.5 joules/L
Alteration of these respiratory mechanics will increase the WOB? 1. Airway Resistance 2. Conductance 3. Compliance (Thoracic & Lung) 4. Elastance
What is Oxygen Cost? The oxygen consumption of the respiratory muscles
What is the normal value for Oxygen Cost? <5% of total Oxygen Consumption (12ml/min)
What is the significance of the Oxygen Cost of breathing? Increase with alteration of: 1. Increase Raw 2. Decrease GAW 3. Decrease CL/CCW 4. Decrease Elastance 5. Emphysema >120ml/min
Created by: Langhout1418