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Car/Pul Unit 5

SPC Cardiopulmonary Physiology Unit 5 Exam 3

What is the role of the cerebral cortex in regulation of ventilation? Conscious control of ventilation, but also controls singing and speech.
Rhythmic Ventilation is a group of what? Medullary Neurons
What are the 2 types of Medullary Neurons? (DRG) Dorsal Respiratory Group & (VRG) Ventral Respiratory Group
T/F DRG and VRG are named for their location? True
What is the purpose of DRG? Maintains normal ventilation rhythm
What is the purpose of VRG? Function during exercise or disease to activate the accessory muscles.
What is the function of the Apneustic Center? To "BOOST" inspiratory effort, aka "Gasping Center"
Apneustic Center is aka as what? Gasping Center
What is the function of the Pneumotaxic Center? To increase rate & simultaneously decrease tidal volume, aka "Panting Center"
Pneumotaxic Center is aka as what? Panting Center
Which nerve innervates the carotid peripheral chemoreceptors? Glossopharyngeal (IX)
Which nerve innervates the aortic peripheral chemoreceptors? Vagus (X)
What is the chemical stimuli of the Peripheral Chemoreceptors? 1. Increase production of Lactic Acids 2. Increase Arterial (H+) 3. Stimulation of Peripheral Chemoreceptors 4. Stimulation of Medullary Inspiration Neurons 5. Increase Alveolar Ventilation
Peripheral Chemoreceptors kick in when? At low O2 tensions PaO2 <60 & low pH H+
Central Chemoreceptors kick in when? At CO2 tensions & low pH H+
What is the chemical stimuli of the Central Chemoreceptors? 1. Decrease Ventilation 2. Increase Blood PCO2 3. Increase CO2 in CSF 4. Increase H+ CSF 5. Decrease pH in CSF 6. H+ stimulates Central Chemoreceptors 7. Respiratory components of the medulla increase alveolar ventilation
What is the normal ventilatory response to CO2? VE increases 3L/m for each mmHg rise in PACO2
What is the strongest stimulus to ventilation? CO2
What are the factors which affect ventilatory response to CO2? 1. Drugs: Depress the medullary center 2. Narcotics: Heroin, Morphine 3. Barbiturates: Pentobarbital, Secobarbital 4. Airway Obstruction: Acute or Chronic
What is the ventilatory response to Hypoxia? VE increase dramatically when PaO2 <60mmHg
What is the ventilatory response to Hypoxia during Hypercapnia? Hypercapnia significantly augments the hypoxic response.
What is the ventilatory response to Hypoxia during Hypocapnia? Hypocapnia significantly diminishes the hypoxic response.
What is the ventilatory response to acute reduction in pH? Acute Acidosis stimulates Peripheral Chemoreceptors & VE increases. The lower the pH, the greater the VE increases.
What is the ventilatory response to hypocapnia during acidosis? Hypocapnia diminishes the ventilatory response to acidosis
What is the ventilatory response to hypercapnia during acidosis? Hypercapnia intensifies the ventilatory response to acidosis
What is the pH of CSF? 7.32
The Blood-Brain barrier consists of what? 1. Gasses like CO2 which diffuse across readily 2. Ions like H+, HCO3- active transport--slow process
How is ventilation affected in Chronic Respiratory Acidosis? 1. (HCO3-) increases in CSF & the Central Chemoreceptors are obtunded 2. Low PaO2 stimulates the peripheral chemoreceptors establishing an Hypoxic drive
How is ventilation affected in Ketoacidosis (Severe Metabolic Acidosis)? H+ stimulates the central & peripheral chemoreceptors causeing a Kussmaul's breathing pattern & PaCO2 drop into the 20's
What is Apneustic Breathing? A sustained inspiratory maneuver is exhibited
Apneustic breathing is caused by what? Brainstem injuries
What is Biot's Respiration? 10-20 sec. periods of apnea followed by 3 to 5 identical volume breaths
Biots breathing is caused by what? Increased ICP
What is Cheyne-Stokes Respiration? A "Crescendo-Decrescendo" ventilatory pattern
Cheyne-Stokes is caused by what? Heart failure or severe brain damage
What is Kussmaul's Breathing? A ventilatory pattern characterized by rapid, deep breathing
Kussmaul's breathing is caused by what? Severe Ketoacidosis
Created by: Langhout1418
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